restored to Sardinia, and in 1860 finally annexed to France
together with Savoy. The meeting of Charles V. and Francis J.
which took place here through the intervention of Pope Paul III.
in 1538 resulted in a temporary armistice only, as the emperor
and the king had conceived such a profound mutual aversion for
each other that nothing would induce them to meet in person.
Nice was the birthplace of the French general Masse'na (born in
1758) and of Giuseppe Garibaldi (b. July 4th, 1807). Halevy,
the composer of opera music, died here in 1862. The dialect of
the natives is a mixture of Provencal and Italian.
In winter Nice is the rendezvous of numerous invalids and
persons in robust health from all parts of Europe,, especially from.
England, Russia, and Germany, who assemble here to escape
from ihe rigours of a northern winter. The annual number of
visitors is still on the increase, and living becomes dearer in the
same proportion. In summer the town is deserted.
Nice is beautifully situated on the broad Baie des Anges,
which opens towards the S. , at the mouth of the Paglione, or
Paillon (a small stream, frequently dried up). The broad and
stony bed of the river, with handsome quays on each bank, di¬
vides the town into two halves. On the 1. bank is the Old
Town, with its narrow, dirty lanes, which however have been
superseded by better streets near the shore (Boulevard du Midi,
and Promenade du Cours). On the r. bank is the Strangers'
Quarter, which already surpasses the old town in extent, and
is intended to occupy the entire space bounded on the W. by
the brook Magnan , and on the N. by the railway (the Quartier
de la Croix de Marbre stretches along the coast to the W., the
Quartier Carabacel to the N. E. along the bank of the Paillon).
Nice contains no churches or other buildings worthy of notice.
A Marble Cross in the Rue de France, commemorating the above-
mentioned meeting of Charles V. and Francis I., has given its
name (Croix de Marbre) to this entire quarter of the town. The
Square, a broad space formed by covering in the Paillon be¬
tween the Pont Vieux and Pont Neuf, is embellished by a Statue
of Massena (see above) in bronze, erected in 1867; in front Clio is
represented on the pedestal writing his name on the page of
history; at the sides are reliefs. The Town Library (40,000
vols., accessible daily 10—3, on Sundays 10—12 o'clock) in the
Rue St. Francois de Paule 2, contains a few Rom. antiquities
(milestones etc.), and a nat. hist. Cabinet.
The Jardin Public (militaiy music, see p. 102) at the em¬
bouchure of the Paillon, and the *Promenade des Anglais
adjoining it on the W., which was laid out by English residents
in 1822—24, and greatly extended in 1862, are the principal
rendezvous of visitors. These grounds stretch along the coast
for iy2 M. as far as the brook Magnan, and are bordered with