15. Route. 99
to the principality of Monaco, then under the Sardinian supre¬
macy, finally became French by the events of 1860. It is char¬
mingly situated on the Bay of Mentone, which is divided into
the Baie de I'Est and the Baie de I'Ouest by a rocky promontory.
It is protected by a vast wall of rock from the N. winds, and is
considered to be one of the most favourable spots for a winter-
residence on the Riviera di Ponente (mean temperature about
5° Fahr. higher than at Nice, a cold wind however generally pre¬
vails towards noon). The vegetation is luxuriant. The numerous
orange and lemon groves are interspersed with gnarled carob-trees
(ceratoria siliqua), figs, olives, etc. The Promenade du Midi and
the Jardin Public are the favourite afternoon resorts of visitors.
The ruined castle on the above mentioned rocky promontory,
which has been converted into a burial-ground, affords a fine view.
Another picturesque point is the monastery of S. Annunziata, to
which a rough path ascends (in •/> hr.) from the Turin road (to the
1. immediately beyond the railway). A pleasant and sheltered walk
to Capo Martino, which bounds the Bay of-Mentone on the W.
Pleasant excursion (comp. map, p. 104) from Mentone by (4 M.) Castel-
laro to the summit of the Berceau (3—4 hrs.). Magnificent prospect embracing
the mountains of the coast, the blue expanse of the Mediterranean, and Cor¬
sica in the distance. —-To S. Agnese in 3—3'|2 hrs., returning.to Mentone
by Gorbio and Roccabruna (5—6 hrs.). — To Camporosso situated 3>|2 M.,
and Dolce Acqua 7 M. inland from Ventimiglia (p. 97).
The High Road from Mentone to Nice, IS3/* M. (by diligence
or carr.), the so-called '■Route de la Corniche', traverses the most beautiful
part of the Riviera, and is far preferable to the railway (see below). It. as¬
cends through the most luxuriant vegetation, and commands a charming re¬
trospect of Mentone and the. coast as far as Bordighera. Then a view of
Monaco (see below), to which a road descends to the 1. beyond the highest
point of the road. To the r. of the road higher up Roccabruna is visible.
Then Turbia with its huge Roman tower, the remains of the Tropaea Augusti
(whence the name'Turbia'). erected to commemorate the subjugation of the
Ligurian tribes (A. D. 13). Here another very beautiful view is enjoyed.
E. the wild mountains and the entire coast from Ventimiglia to Bordi¬
ghera;. W. (view in this direction from a point a few steps above the tower)
the Mediterranean, the French coast near Antibes, the island of St. Margue¬
rite, the Montagnes de l'Esterel, and other distant coast hills. The road
attains its culminating point, in a bleak mountain-district 3|< M. beyond
Turbia. On the 1. is Eza (p. 100), a group of grey and venerable houses
with a white campanile, perched on an isolated rock rising abruptly from
the vallcv. Farther on, the wooded promontory of St. Hospice (p. 106),
Beaulieu\p. 106), Villafranca (p. 105), beyond which a view is obtained
of the beautiful valley of Nice (p. 100), with its villas, monasteries, vil¬
lages, and green hills.
The Railway (fares etc. see p. 94) from Mentone to Nice
skirts the coast the whole way, and affords very inferior views to
the magnificent and lofty carriage-road. It crosses the Borigli,
penetrates Capo Martino by means of a tunnel, and stops at stat.
Cdbbe-Roquebrune. The village (Ital. Roccabruna) lies on the
hill to the r. , in the midst of orange and lemon groves, and
overtopped by a ruined castle, Next stat. Monte Carlo (for the
Casino, p. 100); then