88 Route 14. GENOA. Fortifications.
of Germany. After the battle of Marengo (1800) Genoa was taken possession
of by the French. In 1805 it was formally annexed to the Empire of
France, and in 1815 to the Kingdom of Sardinia. — An old Tuscan saying,
the first part of which is not untrue, is very characteristic of the former
rivalry between them and the Genoese, whom it pronounces to possess: 'mare
senza pesce, montagne senza alberi, uomini senza fede, e donne senza ver-
The city possesses a double line of Fortifications. The first
of these, about 7 M. in length, encloses the city itself, the other
consists of a broad rampart, 20 M. in length, which extends
along the hills at some distance from Genoa and at the most
elevated points is furnished with small fortified towers and
intrenchments, completed in 1632, and recently strengthened.
Genoa is the most important commercial town and seaport in
Italy. The average number of sailing-vessels from foreign ports
which enter the harbour is 1700 annually, of steamboats 800.
In the coast trade 5000 sailing vessels and 1400 steamers touch
here annually. The annual imports are valued at 300 million fr.,
the exports at 120 million. Of the imports about one-third is
from England, and a large proportion of the remainder from
France and North America. The traffic of Genoa has been dou¬
bled within the last twelve or fourteen years.
The former opulence of the city is still evidenced by the
numerous and magnificent palaces of bygone ages. All the streets
are paved with slabs of marble, but many of them are so narrow,
steep, and tortuous as to be inaccessible to carriages.
The great artery of the traffic of Genoa is a line of broad
streets, which, like the Boulevards at Paris, encircle the city,
commencing at the Railway Station, passing the Monument of
Columbus (p. 92), continued by the Via Balbi, passing S. Annun-
ziata (p. 91); then by the Via Nuovissima, Via Nuova, Piazza
delle Fontane Morose (or della Posta), Via and Piazza Carlo
Felice, Piazza Nuova, and thence by the Cattedrale S. Lorenzo
(Strada Carlo Alberto) to the Harbour. The principal churches
and palaces are situated in this line of streets. Many of them
were erected by Galeazzo Alessi (a pupil of Michael Angelo, born
at Perugia 1500, d. 1572), whose example was generally followed
in the construction of subsequent palaces. Between these loftily
situated streets and piazzas a complete labyrinth of narrow streets
and lanes descend to the harbour, those adjacent to which are
the most ancient.
The unparalleled beauty of the situation and the interesting
reminiscences of its ancient magnificence render a visit to Genoa
very attractive. The stranger is recommended to proceed first
to the church of *S. Maria di Carignano (PI. 13), situated on
one of the highest points at the S.E. extremity of the city. This
structure, in the form of a Greek cross, with a lofty dome,
designed by the above-mentioned Galeazzo Alessi, is an imitation
of the original design of St. Peter's at Rome, and is remarkable