11. Route. 81
of the Great St. Bernard; the highest peak farther E. is
At Chivasso carriages are changed. Next stations Montandro,
Caluso, and Strambino , villages of some importance. To the 1.
Mont Blanc is visible; facing the traveller is Monte Rosa. To
the 1. of the latter a glimpse of the Matterhorn is obtained for
a short time, but it is soon concealed by the nearer mountains.
Ivrea (766 ft.) (Europa), a town with 9600 inhab., is pic¬
turesquely situated on the Dora Baltea (French Doire), on the
slope of a hill crowned by an extensive and well-preserved an¬
cient Castle, with three lofty towers of brick, now a prison.
Adjacent is the modern Cathedral, the interior of which was
restored in 1855. An ancient sarcophagus adorns the adjoining
Piazza. Ivrea is an episcopal see and capital of the province
of that name. Strabo relates that at Eporedia, the present Ivrea,
36,000 Salassi, inhabitants of the valleys of Aosta (p. 83), were
captured by the Romans and sold as slaves.
Ivrea may be termed one of the S. gateways to the Alps.
The luxuriantly fertile valley, where mulberries, grapes, and other
fruits are abundantly produced, is here D/2 M. in breadth. The
road now follows the course of the Dora Baltea as far as Aosta.
On a height to the r. stands the well-preserved, pinnacled castle
of Montaldo (a waterfall in the neighbourhood); several other
ruins crown the hills farther on. The vines which clothe the
slopes are here carefully cultivated. The road passes the villages
of Settimo- Vittone and Carema. At
12 M. Pont St. Martin (Rosa Rossa) the Toad crosses the
Lysbach, which descends from Monte Rosa. The bold and slender
bridge which crosses the brook higher up is a Roman structure.
This and the ruined castle here are most picturesque adjuncts
to the scenery. Several forges are situated on the banks of
Beyond Donnaz the road ascends rapidly through a profound
defile. On the 1. flows the river, on the r. rises a precipitous
rock. The pass is suddenly terminated by the picturesque *Fort
Bard (1019 ft.), which stands on a huge mass of rock in a most
commanding position. The fort is of very ancient origin. In
1052 it was taken by Duke Amadeus of Savoy after a long and
determined siege. In May, 1800, three weeks before the battle
of Marengo, an Austrian garrison of 400 men here kept the entire
French army in check for a week after their passage of the St.
Bernard. The French, however, succeeded in conveying a small
field-piece to the summit of Monte Albaredo, which overtops the
fort, whence they partially disabled the battery commanding the
entrance to the town.
The new road, hewn in the solid rock, no longer leads by
the village of Bard, but follows the course of the Dora, below
Bjedekek. Italy I. 2nd Edit, 6