XII. Calculation of Time.
The old Italian reckoning from 1 to 24 o'clock is now disused,
except by the humbler classes. Ave Maria = 24. The hours are
altered every fortnight, being regulated by the sunset. The or¬
dinary reckoning of other nations is termed ora francese. The
traveller will find little difficulty in employing the Italian reckon¬
ing should he have occasion to do so.
XIII. Climate. Mode of Living.
Travellers from the north must in some degree alter their
mode of living whilst in Italy, without however implicitly adop¬
ting the Italian st\le. Strangers generally become unusually
susceptible to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit to be
well supplied with warm clothing for the winter. Carpets and
stoves, to the comforts of which the Italians generally appear
indifferent, are indispensable in winter. A southern aspect is an
absolute essential for the delicate, and highly desirable for the
robust. Colds are most easily taken after sunset and in rainy
weather. — Even in summer it is a wise precaution not to wear
too light clothing. Flannel is strongly recommended.
Exposure to the summer-sun should as much as possible be
avoided. According to a Roman proverb , dogs and foreigners
(Inglesi) alone walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. Um¬
brellas, and spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses
to protect the whole eye are best) may be used with advantage
when a walk in the sun is unavoidable. Repose during the
hottest hours is advisable, a siesta of moderate length refreshing.
Windows should be closed at night.
English and German medical men are to be met with in the
larger cities. The Italian therapeutic art does not enjoy a very
high reputation in the rest of Europe. German and English
chemists, where available, are recommended in preference to the
Italian. It may, however, be a wise discretion in maladies arising
from local causes to employ native skill.