344 R°ute 39' ATHENS. Parthenon.
of Artemis Brauronia (thus named after Brauron in Attica, the
principal seat of her worship). The latter was approached at the
E. extremity by several low steps, flanked with votive offerings,
and the temple itself lay in the S.E. portion of the enclosure. By
the castle-wall, beyond the foundations of this temple, lie frag¬
ments of the fretted and painted ceiling of the Propylasa, together
with numerous other relics. The most celebrated representation
here was that of the mythical Trojan horse in bronze, by Stron-
gylion, a contemporary of Phidias, the basement of which is among
the ruins on the \V. of the enclosure. A vertical cutting in the
rock separates this sacred region from that of Athene Ergane (i. e.
Athene as patroness of all kinds of work) to the E. A long base¬
ment in the latter once bore the statues of a whole family, exe¬
cuted by the celebrated Sthennis and Leochares. The statues
were subsequently erroneously designated by inscriptions as those
of Trajan, Germanicus and Drusus. The steps in the rock in
front of the Parthenon were employed solely for the erection of
votive offerings. The levelled surface on the S. E. side of this
terrace was the site of the temple of the goddess.
A large basement on the opposite side, of which a few blocks
aTe still extant, bore the colossal statue of Athene Promachus ('fore¬
most fighter'), a work of Phidias. It was 66' in height, in full
armour, and leaning on a lance, the gilded extremity of which
formed a landmark to mariners as they approached Athens from
Cape Sunion. Between this point and the temple the road ascend¬
ing from the Propylsa passed, its direction being indicated by
traces of ruts and gutters in the rock; it then skirted the N.
side of the Parthenon, in order to approach it from the E. side.
The **Parthenon (6 Ilaoilertov) was intended to form the
crowning feature of the Acropolis, and to have this effect also
when viewed from below. It is therefore situated at the N.E.
angle, on the culminating point of the rocky plateau. On the
summit of the rock a surface 275 ' long and 125' wide, on which
the 'stylobates', a basement of marble, 6' in height, rose in 3
steps, was formed by a vast substructure ('sterobates') of porous
stone, 20' in height on the S. side. The bases of the columns
of the Parthenon were therefore nearly on a level with the sum¬
mit of the Propykea. Curiously enough, these steps are slightly
convex, and not perfectly horizontal. The upper surface, 250'
long and 111' wide, supported 8 columns at each extremity and
17 at each side (the corner-columns being counted twice), in all
4(j columns, 37' high, 67.2' in diameter. On these columns rests
the architrave, and above it the triglyphs, one of which is over
each column, and one over each intercolumnium. Between these
were the metopes, or intertignia, each of 4i/2 sq. ft., 14 in number
at each extremity, 32 on each side, in all 92. Each metope