History. ATHKNiS. 39. Route. 335
('lord'), then as Duke, with Athens and Boeotia as feudal fiefs. At the close
of the 13th cent. Walter de Brienne obtained possession of the Duchy, and
with the aid of (utalonian knights extended his dominions, but was after¬
wards deposed by them. In 1312 these knights proclaimed their leader,
Roger Deslau, Duke of Athens, after whose death they ceded the Duchy to
the Arragonese King Frederick of Sicily. In the 14th cent. Athens was
governed by the officers of the latter, until the Catalnnian party was de¬
feated by Rainer Acciajuoli, lord of Argos and Corinth, who then became
Duke (1394). Half a century later, Athens was conquered by the Turks
under Omar, after an obstinate resistance (145G). The lethargic condition of
the city was next disturbed by the Venetians, who took it in I4b4; and
Athens was again conquered by them in 1687, under the Doge Mm-osini.
On the latter occasion the gunpowder in the Parthenon was ignited by a
bomb, and that sumptuous structure, which had till then survived the
surrounding desolation, was reduced to a heap of ruins. The Propyleea had
already been destroyed by an explosion at an earlier period.
During the dark ages the history of Athens had been shrouded in such
profound obscurity, that the first investigators who repaired to it might
almost be said to have re-discovered the city. The earliesl researches were
made by Cyriacus of Ancona, a collector of inscriptions (14^7*, by Prof.
Kraus of Tubingen (1573), who carried on an erudite correspondence with
Greek savants, and by French Jesuits (1045). In 10*0 the first drawings of
the monuments were executed, and Athens was soon afterwards visited by
the scholars Spon and Wheeler. Since that period scientific research has
been very greatly extended.
In 1770 the iirst rebellion against the Turkish yoke took place; and
although it was quelled at the time, peace twas never again thoroughly re¬
established. The struggle was heroically carried on for many years by the
Suliotes of Kpirus, and a conspiracy (the iiato/a) to shake oil' the hated
thraldom gradually spread over the whole of Greece. On Feb. 1st, 1<S21, the
insurrection unexpectedly broke out in Wallachia, and on Apr. 4th in the
Peloponnesus. On Apr. 9th a provisional government began to hold its
sessions at Calamata in jHessenia. The islands of Spezzae, Hydra and Psara
declared their independence; Athens was taken, and the Turkish garrison
besieged in the Acropolis, and throughout the whole country the cause of
the insurgents prospered. In 1822 less progress was made, but Aero-Corinth
and the Acropolis of Athens (June 22nd) fell into the hands of the Greeks.
Disunion in the camp of the revolution and the military superiority of
Ibrahim Pasha threatened the cause of liberty with utter destruction, and
on Aug. 26th, 1826, the Acropolis was recaptured by the Turks. The great
European powers, however, interfered at this juncture (1827), and the naval
Battle of Navarino was fought (Oct. 20th). At the close of the year Capodis-
trias was appointed president, and on Feb. 3rd, 1830, Greece in its present
extent was declared an independent state by the protocol of London. After
the murder of Capodistrias (1831) a civil war broke out, but was terminated
by the arrival of the young King Otho of Bavaria (Jan. 30th. 1833). In 1S35
the seat of government was transferred from >"auplia to Athens, and Otho I.
began his career as an independent sovereign. On Sept. 15th, 1843, a mili¬
tary revolution broke out, in consequence of which all the Germans were
banished and a liberal constitution proclaimed. After numerous disturbances
a new insurrection broke out on <»ct. 22nd, lSti'2; the King, then on a
journey through the Peloponnesus, did not return to Athens, and on Oct.
24th quitted the country for ever. The present King George, second son of
the King of Denmark, landed at the Pirseus on Oct. 30th, 1863, and on his
accession the Ionian Islands were added to the dominions of Greece. Since
that period Athens has prospered , and it is hoped that a happier future is
now in store for her.
The Place du Palais, where the principal hotels are situated,
is taken as the starting-point in the following description of the
city. The chief attractions may be seen in the course of two