|9S SICILY. Historical Notice.
master of the island. But its decline dates from this period. It was re¬
peatedly devastated by the interminable wars with the Anjous of Naples,
and the nobility attained to such power as to render systematic adminis¬
tration on the part of the government impossible. When in 1410 Sicily be¬
came an appanage of the kingdoms of Naples and Spain, it still retained a
semblance of independence in its continued freedom of internal adminis¬
tration. But this very privilege proved prejudicial to it, whilst its external
defence against the barbarians was neglected. Not till 1812 was Sicily res¬
cued from the condition of a purely mediaeval feudal state, but only to
experience once more (1815—1860) the evils of a despotic government. The
following is a chronological sketch of the history of this period of 6 cen¬
a. 1282—1285. Peter of Arragon, king of Sicily.
12N5 —1296. James the Just.
1296- 1337. Frederick II.
1337-1342. Peter II., co-regent from 1321.
1355-1377. Frederick III. the Simple, brother of Louis.
1377- 1402. Jlary, daughter of Frederick III., married in 14S5 to Martin
1402- 1409. Blartin 1. sole monarch of Sicily, married to Bianca of Castille.
1409- 1410. Blaitin II., father of Blartin L
b. 1412—1416, Ferdinand the Just, king of Arragon and Castille.
1416—1458. Alfonso the Generous, king of Arragon and after 1442 king
1458 — 1479. John of Arragon and Navarre.
1479—1515. Ferdinand II. the Catholic, after 1505 also king of Naples.
1516—1554. Emp. Charles V.
1554-1598. Philip II.
1598-1621. Philip III.
1621—1665. Philip IV.; 1647, Revolution at Palermo, Giuseppe Alessi.
1665—1700. Charles II.; 1672—1678, Blessina revolts in favour of
Louis XIV. of France.
1700-1713. Philip V. of Bourbon, after 1713 king of Spain.
1713 — 1720. Victor Amadous of Savov.
1720-1734. Emp. Charles VI. of Germain.
c. 1734 — 1759. Charles III. of Bourbon.
1759—1806. Ferdinand IV., king of Naples and Sicily, married to Caro¬
line, the profligate daughter of Maria Theresia, was com¬
pelled in 1798 to fly from Naples to Sicily before the French
under Championnet, and again in 1806.
d. 1806—1815. Ferdinand IV. sole king of Sicily. Owing to the influence of
William Bentink the constitution of Sicily is established and
a parliament summoned (1812).
1815—1825. Ferdinand IV. reigns as Ferdinand I., "king of the two Sici¬
lies". The constitution subverted. 1820, Revolution at Pa¬
lermo and throughout the island for the restoration of the
1825—1S30. Francis I.
1S30-1859. Ferdinand II.; 1837, cholera-revolution; 1848-1849, Sicily
ruled by a temporary government, parliament at Palermo;
bombardment of Blessina.
1859-1860. Francis II.
5th Period :
I860— Victor Emanuel , king of Italy : May 11th, Garibaldi landed
at Marsala; May 15th, battle of Calatafimi; Blay 27th, cap¬
ture of Palermo; July 20th, battle of Blelazzo. — Since Sep¬
tember, 1360, Sicily has been incorporated with the kingdom