language. Postage-stamps are sold at all the tobacco-shops. Let¬
ters^ to England cost 60 c, France 40 c, Germany 60 c, Switzer¬
land 30 c, Belgium 40 c, Holland (via France) 70 c, Denmark
So c, Norway and Sweden 1 1., Russia 1 1.
Letters by town-post 5c; throughout the kingdom of Italy
20 c prepaid, 30 c. unpaid. Letters to Rome must be prepaid
as far as the frontier (20 c), also vice versa.
In the larger towns the post-office is open daily from 9 a.
m. to 10 p. m. (also on Sundays and holidays).
XII. Calculation of Time.
The old Italian reckoning from 1 to 24 o'clock is now disused,
except by the lower classes, especially in Sicily. Ave Maria (i. e.
sunset) =24. The hours are altered every fortnight, being regu¬
lated by the sunset. The ordinary reckoning of other nations is
termed ora francese. The traveller will find little difficulty in
employing the Italian reckoning when he has occasion to do so.
XIII. Climate. Mode of Life.
Travellers from the north must in some degree alter their
mode of living whilst in Italy, without however implicitly adop¬
ting the Italian style. Strangers generally become unusually
susceptible to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit to be
well supplied with warm clothing for the winter. Carpets and
stoves, to the comforts of which the Italians generally appear
indifferent, are indispensable in winter. A southern aspect is an
absolute essential for the delicate, and highly desirable for the
robust. Colds are most easily caught after sunset and in rainy
weather. — Even in summer it is a wise precaution not to wear
too light clothing. Flannel is strongly recommended.
Exposure to the summer-sun should as much as possible be
avoided. According to a Roman proverb, dogs and foreigners
(Inglesi) alone walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. Um¬
brellas, and spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses to
protect the whole eye are best) may be used with advantage
when a walk in the sun is unavoidable. Repose during the hot¬
test hours is advisable, a siesta of moderate length refreshing.
Windows should be closed at night.
English and German medical men are to be met with in the
larger cities. The Italian therapeutic art does not enjoy a very
high reputation in the rest of Europe. German and English chemists,
where available, are recommended in preference to the Italian.
It may, however, be a wise discretion, in the case of maladies
arising from local causes, to employ native skill.