Art and Science. FLORENCE. 64. Route. 469
banished in 1527, but Emp. Charles V., who had married his natural
daughter Margaret (afterwards Duchess of Parma) to Alessandro, attacked
tbe town and took it in 1530 after a siege of eleven months, during which
Miehael Angelo, as engineer on the side of the republic, and the brave
partisan Ferruccio greatly distinguished themselves. The emperor then
appointed Alessandro hereditary Duke of Florence. The assassination of
the latter, perpetrated by his own cousin Lorenzo, 7th Jan., 1537, did not
conduce to the re-establishment of the republic He was succeeded by
Cosimo I. (b. 1519), son of Giovanni delle Bande Nere (d. 1526), the only
soldier of the Medici family, who was a descendant of Lorenzo, brother
of the eider Cosimo. The armed revolt of the Florentine republicans in
1537 was suppréssed with the aid of Spanish troops (p. 455); and in 1548
Francesco Burlamacchi, gonfaloniere of Lucca, who had attempted to or-
ganize all Tuscany as a united republic, expiated his failure on the scaffold.
Cosimo, who obtained the title of Grand-duke in 1569, now succeeded in
combining the most varied territories into a single monarchical state, which
included the entire basin of the Arno, with Arezzo, Cortona, Montepulciano,
Vol térra, Pisa, Pescia, Pisa, and (after a bloody war that bogan in 1555)
also Siena. Modern history, see p. 425.
The traveller interested in historical research should observe the
numerous memorial tablets in various parts of Florence, recording import¬
ant events in the annals of the town.
Art and Science. The proud position occupied by Florence in the
history of art and science was first established by Dante Alighieri, born
here in 1265, author of the 'Divine Comedy', and the great founder of
the modern Italian language. In 1302 he was banished with his party,
and in 1321 died at Ravenna. Giovanni Boccaccio, the first expounder of
the illustrious Dante, and celebrated for his 'Decamerone', which served
as a model for the 'Canterbury Tales' of Chaucer, also lived at Florence.
Florence, too, was the chief eradle of the school of the Humanists (15th
cent.), who aimed at a universal and harmonious development of the per¬
sonal character, and whose contemplative life was far exalted above
every-day realities. This was the home of Salutalo, Lionardo Bruñí, and
Marsuppini, the 'Pagan', whose firmly moulded characters recall the per-
Genealogy of the Medici.
Giovanni d'Averardo, 1360-1429.
m. Piccarda Bueri.
(1.) Cosimo, Pater Patrise, 1389-1464. (2.) Lorenzo, 1395-1440.
m. Contessina de' Bardi, d. 1473. m. Ginevra Cavalcanti;
progenitors of the later grand-
(1.) Piero, 1416-69. (2.) Giovanni, d. 1463. (3.) Carlo (natural son),
m. Lucrezia Tornabuoni, d. 1482. d. 1492.
(1.) Lorenzo il Magnifico, 1449-92. (2.) Giuliano, 1453-78, whose (3.)Biuncu.
m. Clarice Orsini, d. 1488. son Giulio (1478-1534) (4.) Nannina.
became pope as Cíe- (5.) Maria.
ment VIL in 1523.
(1.) Piero, 1471- (2.) Giovanni (1475- (3.) Giuliano, 1479-1516, (4.) Lucrezia.
1503. 1521), who be- Due de Nemours,__ (5.) Luisa.
m. Alfonsina carne pope as m. FilibertaofSa- I (6.) Maddalena
Orsini, d. 1520. Leo X. in 1513. voy. \ (7.) Contessina.
(1.) Lorenzo, 1492-1519, Duke of (2.) Clarice. I Ippolito (natural son),
Urbino. m. Madeleine de la d. 1535 as Cardinal.
Tour cPAuvergne, d. 1519. I
(1.) Caterina, Queen of France, (2.) Alessandro (natural son), first Duke
d. 1589. of Florence, d. 1537.