Campo Santo. PISA. 60. Route. 431
interior the green quadrangle is surrounded by a spacious cloister,
with unglazed, round-arched windows fllled with beautiful tracery.
Three chapéis adjoin the cloister; the oldest is in the centre of the
E. side, with dome of later date. The walls are covered with *Fres-
coes by painters of the Tuscan school of the 14th and 15th cent.
(comp. p. 428), unfortunately in bad preservation and restored by
Botti. Below these is a collection of Román, Etruscan, and mediaeval
sculptures, these last being important links in the history of early
Italian sculpture. The tombstones of persons interred here form the
Paintings. To the right of the chapel, on the E. Wall: Crucifixión,
Ascenaion, the Doubting Thomaa, and Resurrection, by a Follower of Giotto
(llth cent.), said by Vasari to be Buffalmacco. All these have been repainted.
On the S. Wall: "Triumph of Death: to the left are represented íhe
retired life of the pioua hermit and the worldlineaa of the wealthy, who
on their way to the chase are suddenly reminded by three open coffina of
the tranaitoriness of human pleasures; in the centre is Death, invoked
in vain by the poor and wretched; above are devils bearing away the
souls of the deceased to a fiery punishment; to the right, the eternal
happiness of the blessed, who are seated in a garden, benealh pomegranate
trees; above are angels with the souls of the redeemed. Next are the
"Last Judgment (attitude of the Judge celebrated and imitated even by
Fra Bartolomeo and Miehael Angelo) and Hell (lower half entirely repainted).
Theae three are attributed by Vasari to Andrea Orcagna, but modern critics
believe that they were executed about 1350 by Pisan masters (perhaps
Franc. Traini). The following fresco, representing the Life (temptations
and miracles) of the holy hermils in the Theban wilderness, which Vasari
ascribea ío Pietro Lorenzetti of Siena, is by an unidentified hand. Above
the entrance ia a Madonna 'in excelais' by F. Traini. — Between the two
entrances, the life of St. Rainerus, íhe tutelary saint of Pisa. The four
upper scenes (converaion from a worldly life, journey to Palestine, victory
over temptation, retirement to a monastery) were completed by Andrea
da Firenze in 1377 (of whicb there is documentary proof, íhough Va°ari
attributea them to Simone Martini of Siena). The four lower and better-
executed acenes (return from Palestine, miraclea, death, and removal of
his body to the cathedral of Pisa, the lasí much injured) were painíed
by Antonio Veneziano in 1386-7. — Then, above, scenes from the life of
St. Ephesus (who as a Román general, fighting againat the heathena,
receivea a flag of victory from the Archangel Miehael, but is afterwards
condemned and executed) ; below, acenea from the life of St. Potitua,
admirably portrayed by Spinello Aretino in 1391, but now almoat obliterated.
— Lastly, the history of Job, by Francesco da Volterra (erroneously attributed
to Giotto), begun in 1370, in bad preservation.
On the W. Wall no paintings of importance.
On the N. Wall the history of Génesis: first the Creation (God the
Father holding the world in both hands, 'il mappamondo'); then in the
upper series, Creation of Man, the Fall, Expulsión from Paradise, Cain
and Abel, Building of the Ark, Deluge, and Noah's Sacrifice, by Pietro
di Puedo of Orvieto, about 1390 (erroneously atíributed by Vasari to
Buffalmacco). — The lower series and all the following paintings on the N.
wall areby Benozzo (?OííoI¡ofFlorence(1469-85),twenty-threeRepresentations
from the Oíd Testament, admirably executed 'a tempera' and important as
illustrations of the maoners of the painter's contemporaries: Noah's Vintage
and Drunkennesa (with the ' Vergognosa di Pisa', or scandalised female
spectator), the Curse of Ham, the Tower of Babel (with portraits of con-
lemporary celebrities, Cosimo de' Medici, his son Piero, and his grand-
sona Lorenzo and Giuliano), the History of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and
Esau, Joseph, Moses and Aaron, Fall of the Walls of Jericho, History of
David, Solomon and the Queen of Sheba; íheae last much injured. 'The