428 Route 60. PISA. Cathedral.
ia in íhe oíd basilica slyle, buí with the not unimportanl innovation of
having a dome over the centre of the cross. The magniflcent building opera-
tionsofíhe Pisans continued throughouí íhe whole of íhe 12íh cent., and
terminaíed with the erection of the charming church of Santa Maria della
Spina (1230), thal of Sania Calerina (1253), and the Campo Santo (1278). In
the 13th cent. Pisa was also important as a eradle of Sculpture, and gave
birth to Niccolb Pisano (ca. 1206-80), a precursor of the Renaissance. Under
whaí influences Niccoló was írained is uncertain, but there is a marked
difference between his works, with their somewhat antique casi, and íhose
of his Pisan predecessors (such as the bronze door of the cathedral by Bo-
nannus). His son, Giovanni Pisano (ca. 1250-ca. 1328), also noted as an
architect, was no less famous than his father, whose antique style, however,
he did not follow. Keen observation of nature and a highly picturesque
atyle diatinguish his works; his figures are charged with passionate move-
ment and great dramatic forcé. Arnolfo di Cambio (1232-ca. 1301), pupil of
Niccoló Pisano, and Andrea Pisano (1273-1348), pupil of Giovanni, form
links between the art of Pisa and that of Florence. Pisa also boasted of
posaesaing Painters at an early period. The ñame of Giuntu da Pisa (firsf
half of íhe 13lh cení.), for example, was known far beyond íhe limits of
the town, but his works are uninteresting, except lo the fltudent of arl.
The fact that Cimabue was invited from Florence to embellish the apse of
the cathedral, indicates the decline of native art. The execution of the
frescoea in the Campo Santo waa eommitted partly to foreign artists, not
indeed to Giotto himself, as Vasari asserts, but to his pupils and to S.
Tuscan masters. In the 15th cent. Benozzo Gozzoli (1420-97) of Florence,
a pupil of Fra Angélico, spent 16 years at Pisa, where the Campo Santo
is graced by one of his most imporíant works (p. 431).
The busiest part of the town and chief resort of visitors is the
Lungarno, a series of broad and handsome quays, and particularly
the sheltered Lungarno Regio (Pl. C, D, 4), on the N. side of the
river. Churches and buildings in the Lungarno, see pp. 435, 436.
— The river is crossed by four bridges. That in the centre is the
oíd Ponte di Mezzo (Pl. D, E, 4) ; aboveJt is the Ponte olla Fortezza
(Pl. F, 5); below it is the Ponte Solferino (Pl. B, C, 5), completed
in 1875, while outside the town is the Ponte di Ferro (Pl. A, B, 6).
The chief boast of Pisa is the **Piazza del Dtjomo (Pl. B, 1),
to which every visitor flrst direets his steps. The Cathedral. the
Leaning Tower, the Baptistery, and the Campo Santo form a group of
buildings without parallel, especially as it lies beyond the precinets
of the town and therefore removed from its disturbing influences.
The **Cath.edral, erected after the great naval victory of the Pis¬
ans near Palermo (1063) by Busketus and Rainaldus in the Tuscan-
Romajiesque style, and consecrated by Pope Gelasius II. in 1118,
was restored in 1597-1604 after a flre in 1595 which seriously dani-
aged the nave. It is a basilica with nave and double aisles, and transept
flanked with aisles, 104 yds. in length, and35i/2yds. in breadth in the
interior, and covered with an elliptical dome over the crossing. This
remarkably perfect edifice is constructed entirely of white marble,
ornamented with black and coloured bands. The most, magniflcent
part is the *Facade, which in the lower story is adorned with columns
and arches attached to the wall, and in the upper parts with four
open galleries, gradually diminishing in length. It was imitatetl at
Lucca, Pistoia, and nther neiiriihonrioe- cities. The ancient Bronze