History. PISA. 60. Route. 427
Theatres. Regio Teatro Nuovo (Pl. E, 4), comparatively good operaa,
pnces very modérate; Politeama Pisano (Pl. G, 6).
English Church (Pl. B, 5), Piazza 8. Lucia; service3 at 8, 11, and 3
from Oct. toMay; chaplain, Rev. W. L. M. Law, B.A., English Church House.
— Waldensian Church, Via del Museo 9.
Chief Attractions (one day) Cathedral (p. 428); Campanile (p. 430); Bap¬
tistery (p. 429); Campo Santo (p. 430); Museo Cívico (p. 434). — Tickets for
the sights of íhe town (Campanile 30 c., Campo Santo 1 fr., Museo Civico
1 fr.; general ticket for all three 1 fr. 60 c.) may be obtained Et the Royal
Victoria Hotel, at Barsauti'a, or at Rossi-Ciampolini'a (see p. 426). Artists
and students receive general íickets (50 c.) at the Archivio di Staío (p. 436).
— The numerous guidéa and beggars in íhe Piazza del Duomo should be
Pisa, a quiettown with 27,200 inhab., the capital of a province,
the see of an archbishop, and the seat of a university, is situated
on both banks of the Arno, 6 M. from the sea and about 4 M. from
the base of the Monti Pisani (p. 437). Its climate is moist and
fairly mild, but the town has always had the reputation of being
rainy. Good drinking-water is brought from the neighbourhood of
Asciano (p. 437).
Pisa waa the Pisae oí the ancients, and once lay at the confluence of the
Arnus and Auser (Serchio), which last has now an estuary of its own.
It became a Román colony in B.C. 180. Auguatus gave ií íhe ñame of
Colonia Julia Pisana, and Hadrian and Aníoninua Pius erecíed femples,
fheafres, and triumphal arches here. At that period the town must have
been a place of considerable importance, but all its ancient monuments,
have disappeared with the exception of a few scanty relies of some
thermse ('Bagni di Nerone') near íhe Porta Lucca (Pl. D, 1; tablet). At
the beginning of the lilh cent. Pisa atíained the rank of one of the
greatest commercial and seafaring towns on the Mediterranean, and became
a rival of Venice and Genoa. It was chiefly indebted for its power to the
zeal with which it took íhe lead in íhe wars against the Infidels. In
1025 the Pisana expelled the Saracena from Sardinia and took permanent
possession of íhe island. In 1030 and 1089 they again defeated the Saracens
at Tunis, and in 1063 destroyed their fleet near Palermo. In 1114 íhey
conquered íhe Balearic Islands, and soon afterwards took a prominent
part in the Crusadea. In the 12lh and 13th centuriea their power had
reached its zenith; their trade extended over the entire Mediterranean,
and their supremacy embraced the Italian islands and the whole of the
coast from Spezia to Civitá Vecchia. In the intestine wars of the penín¬
sula Pisa was the most powerful adherent of íhe Ghibellines, and there¬
fore suaíained a severe shock through the downfall of the Hohenstaufen.
The protracíed wars which íhe citizens carried on with Genoa led to their
disastrous defeaí at Meloria near Leghorn on 6th Aug., 1284 (p. 79), and the
peace concluded in 1300 compelled them to evacúate Corsica and other
possessions. In 1320 the pope invested the kinga of Aragón with Sardinia,
and Pisa was thus deprived of íhia important island also. The city was
farther weakened by infernal dissensiona, and fell a victim to the ambition
of the condottieri. In 1406 it was sold to Florence, but on the arrival of
Charles VIII. (1494) it endeavoured to shake off the yoke of its arrogant
neighbour. In 1509, however, ií wa3 beaieged and again occupied by the
Florentines, to whom it thenceforth continued subject.
In the History of Art Pisa occupied an importanl posilion al an
early period, bul waa obliged to yield up its artistic precedence earlier
than ita political to the more fortúnate Florence. The progress of art at
Pisa was more rapid than in the rest of Tuscany, owing perhapa to the
influence of ita numerous and handsome ancient monuments, aa Román
forma repeatedly recur in the buildinga. With the foundation of íhe
Cathedral of Pisa began the dawn of mediseval Italian art. This church