416 Route 58. RAVENNA. Northern Quarters
enthroned on the globe, angels on both sides; on the right St. Vitalia,
and on the left St. Ecclesiua with the church itself. Below, (1.) Emp.
Justinian with the Archbp. Maximian and attendants, and (r.) the Empresa
Theodora with the ladies of her court, both presenting offerings. Above
íhese, under íhe windows, are represeníed Jerusalem (on the left) and
Bethlehem (on íhe righi). Above, on the side-walls, the four Evangelists
sitting, beneath them, Jeremiah (on the left) and Isaiah (on the right)
standing. On the left in the centre, the three angela entertained by Abra-
ham, Sarah at the door, and aacrifice of Isaac. On the right, in the central
scene, an altar with bread and wine; at the sides, íhe blood-sacrifice of
Abel and íhe bloodless offering of Melchisedech. Beaide it, Moses as a
shepherd; above, Moses putting off his shoes before the burning bush. In
the archway, busts of Chriat (repainled), the Apoatlea, and SS. Gervasius
and Protasius, sons of St. Vitalis. The beautiful Altar of translucent
Oriental alabaster, intended lo be illumined by lighís placed within it,
was reconstructed in 1898. — At the entrance to the choir, two Román
'Reliefs from a frieze in a temple of Neptune, representing his throne with
three putti holding shells and tridents.
In the Ambulatory, which was adorned in 1902-3 with oíd marble slabs,
are placed two early-Christian sarcophagi. — At the N.W. angle are traces
of the oíd winding-staircase that led to the Women's Gallery (Matronaeum)
in the N. tower. From the gallery, which is now reached by a modern
staircase to the left of the choir, we may enter tbe campanile, near which
an archway with ancient stucco ornamentalion (6th cent) has been preserved.
The Cappella San ta Sam-torum, restored in 1901, now contains an early-
Christian sart-opbaaus of tbe 5th cent., with reliéis (Daniel in tbe Lions'Den,
Adoration of tbe Ma»i, Raising of La/arus), afterwards used as the tomb of
the Greek Exarch Laac (d. 641).
The custodian of San Vitale (30 c.) keeps the key of the —
*Mausoleum of Galla Placidia (Pl. 27; C, 2), now Santi Nazario
e Celso, founded about 440 by that Empress (p. 410) beside the
church of Santa Croce, the anterior half of which was pulled down
in 1602. The church is in the form of a Latin cross, 49 ft. long,
41 ft. broad, with a dome.
The Interior (restored in 1898), the pavemenl of which is about 5 ft.
above the original level, was lined with costly marble slabs in 1901-2, and
is adorned with beautiful "Mosaics of the 5th cent., on a dark blue ground:
in the dome, a Latin cross between íhe symbols of íhe four Evangelists;
in the four archea eight apostles, between whom are doves drinking out
of a vase (resembling the celebrated mosaic at the Capiiol); under íhe
vaulíing of íhe righi and left fransepf are íhe oíher four apostles in gilded
mosaic; beaide them in the lunettes are stags ai a spring. Over the door
ia *Christ aa a young shepherd, with long hair; oppoaite ia the triumph
of Chrisíian faith, in which St. Laurence is committing ío íhe flamea an
open book, probably heretical; the adjacent cabinet containa the gospels.
— Behind ia the large marble Sarcophagus of Galla Placidia (d. 450, gutted
by fire in 1577), in which, according to a mediaíval tradition, the Empresa
was interred in a sitíing posíure. The other marble sarcophagi (also empty)
are said fo be íhose of íhe emperors Consíanfius III. and Valentinian III.
The church of -Sania Maria Maggiore (Pl. 17; C, 3), also founded
by Archbp. Ecclesius (p. 415), was rebuilt in 1671, the only relies
of the original church being the columns and the campanile.
San Giovanni Battista (Pl. D, 3; entrance Via Girol. Rossi),
erected by Baduarius for Galla Placidia (?), was almost entirely
rebuilt after 1683 by Pietro Grossi. The substructions of the tower
and the interior columns belong to the original church.
In the N.E. córner of the town is the Rocca di Brancaleont