Railway Stations. 1. Central Station (Pl. D, 1), for the Milán -Bo*
logna line (R 50) and the Verona-Mantua-Modena-Bologna line (R. 42), at
the N.E. end of the town, 3ft-l M. from the hotels. — 2. Stazione Ferrovie
Economiche (Pl. D, 5), for the branch-railways mentioned at p. 376.
Hotels. "Albergo Reale (Pl. a; C, 5), Via Emilia, R. 272-4 fr., omn.
80 c; Italia (Pl. b; C, 3), Via Fonte d'Abisso 3, near the Piazza Reale,
with trattoria, R. 2-272 fr., omn. 60 c. plain; San Marco (Pl. c; B, 4),
Strada Posta Vecchia, commercial, R. 272, omn. 72 fr-, well spoken of;
Albergo e Ristorante Céntrale (Pl. d; C, 4), same street; Scddo di
Francia (Pl. e; B, 4), Contrada dei Bagni, with trattoria, quite unpretending.
Restaurant. Fratelli Molinari, Strada San Carlo, cor. of the Via Emilia
(Pl. C, 4), very fair. — Beer. Birreria Nazionale, Via Emilia, near the Alb.
Reale. — Café. Caffé Nazionule, Via Emilia, near the Alb. Reale.
Cab, per drive 80 c, at night 1 fr. 30 c; per hour 1 fr. 60 c, each
additional half-hour 50 c.; each trunk 20 c.
Tramways (10 c). From the Barriera Garibaldi (Pl. D, 5) by the Via
Emilia to the Porta Sant' Agostino (Pl. A, 3); and by the Piazza Reale
(Pl. C, 3), and the Corso Vitt. Emanuele to the Central Station (Pl. D, 1).
Italian Protestant Church in the Piazza Grande.
Chief Attractiona (>/2 day): Cathedral (p. 373); San Giovanni BattisU
(p. 374); Picture Gallery (p. 374); San Francesco (p. 375).
Modena (115 ft.), a town with 26,800 inhab., situated in a fertile
plain between the Secchia and the Panaro, formerly the capital of
the duchy of that ñame, and now that of a province of the Emilia
and the see of an archbishop, possesses broad streets, spacious ar-
cades, a university, and an academy of art.
Modena, the ancient Mutina, in the dominiona of the Gallic Boii,
became a Román colony in B.C. 183, and waa a place of some importance.
After the murder of Caesar, Decimus Brutus was beaieged here by Antony
for four montha, Dec 44 to April 43 B.C. (Bellum Mutinense); but the latter
was defeated by Octavian with the conauls Pansa and Hirtius, and forcea
to raise the siege. — In the middle ages Modena belonged to the estafes
of the Countesa Matilda (p. 363), but afterwarda obtained ita independence
and became the acene of violent conflicte between the Guelpha and Ghibel-
linea, until in 1288 it eventually carne into the possession of Obizzo II.
d'Este (d. 1293; see p. 379). — On the death of Alphonso II., without issue
(1597), the atatea of Modena and Reggio (but not that of Ferrara) fell to his
kinaman Cesare d'Este (1598), husband of Virginia de* Medici, daughter
of Grand-duke Coslmo I. of Florence. On the death oí Francis II. (d. 1694)
this collateral line became extinct, and the succession waa taken up by
Rinaldo (d. 1737), younger aon of Duke Francis I. Hercules III. (d. 1803),
who by the Peace of Luneville loat Modena in 1801, was the last of the
family of Este. Through his daughter Beatrice, who married Archduke
Ferdinand, the duchy carne into the posseasion of the younger branch of
the House of Austria in 1814. The insurrections of 1821, 1831, and 1818
were quelled with cruel aeverity. Francia V., the laat duke, quitted hia
dominiona in 1859 and went over to the Auatriana. After his death in
1875 the ñame of Este passed to the Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
A specialty of Modena with regard to art-history was the sculptur-
ing of Ierracottab, the aim of the artists being to represent dramatic
groups rather in accordance with pictorial than plástic principies, and
therefore calculated only for being exhibited in niches. This branch of
artw?.s^nr/í.oUlly devel°Ped by the strongly realistic maater Guido Maz-
zom (1450-1018), who worked also in Naples and at the court of France.
Some of his works are in the crypt of the cathedral (p. 373), and in San
Giovanni Bathata (p. 374). The art was next practised in a more refined
style by Antonio Begarelli (1498-1565), who, imbued with the best spirit of
the Renaissance, usually rejeeted the aid of painting, and brought it to the
utmost perfection of which it seema capable.