fo Bologna. REGGIO. 50. Route. 363
Arlottl (d. 1503), by Bart. Spani; admirable statue of Christ, on the altar, by
P. Clementi. Near the entrance, in the left aisle, Monument of Cherubino
Sforzani, the alleged inventor of the hour-glass, by P. Clementi (1560);
beside the lst chapel in the same aisle ia the tomb of Clementi, with hia
bust, by his pupil Franc. Pacchioni (1588). — In the Cappella del Santuario,
near the sacristy, are two silver reliquaries with busts of St. Chrysanthus
and St. Daria, by Bart. Spani and his son Giov. Andrea Spani (1538); also a
silver pax, by Lelio Orsi.
On the W. side of the piazza is the house in which Lodovico
Ariosto (1474-1533; p. 379), the poet, is said to have been born.
His father, NiccolS Ariosti of Ferrara, was commandant of the cita¬
del at the time. — Proceeding henee to the W. by the Via San
Pietro Martire, we reach the church of the —
"Madonna della Ghiara (Pl. A, B, 3), built about 1597 from a
design by Balbi, in the form of a Greek cross covered with a dome.
It was finished after Balbi's death by Franc. Pacchioni, and was
restored in 1890 (closed 12.30-4).
The Interior ia diatinguished for the beauty of ita proportiona and
for ita charming decorationa in stucco. It is adorned with frescoes in the
nave as far as the dome and in the left transept by Luca Ferrari (1605-54)
of Reggio, a pupil of Guido Reni. The frescoes in the choir are by Tiarini
and those in the dome and the right transept are by Lionello Spada, both
of the school of tho Carracci. In the left transept is a fine Crucifixión
(altar-piece), by Guercino; and in the right transept is a highly-revered
figure of the Madonna, drawn by Lelio Orsi (1569; covered).
The Museum (Pl. C, 2) contains the natural history collection of
the celebrated Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-99; b. at Scandiano, see
below), an interesting palaeo-ethnological collection illustrative of
the history of the province, and a 'Gliptoteca', containing sculp¬
tures from Reggio and its vicinity. — The Biblioteca Munieipale
(Pl. 2; B, 4) Via Farini 5, contains 56,000 vols. and about 1000 MSS.
Excursión to Canossa (see inset map on the plan of Reggio), 8-9 hrs.
there and back; carriage with one horse 12-15, with two horsea 20-25 fr.
(luncheon should be brought from Reggio). The drivers usually prefer the
route viá Quattro Castella, with the ruins of four castles which once be¬
longed to the Countesa Matilda of Tuacany (d. 1115), San Polo d'Enza
(p. 370), and Vico, to Ciano d'Enza (inn), whence a bridle-path ascenda
viá Rossena, with a well-preserved castle, to the castle of Canossa. The
drive viá Puianello and Pecorile (785 ft.) is, however, prettier, and beyond
the latter village the route (on horaeback or on foot) cannot be mistaken.
The path leada through the village, and then to the right towarda the
church of Casóla, which ia left on the hill to the right; at the angle
of the hill Canossa comea in aight, and the path leada in the direction
of the village along the Campóla. The walk to the foot of the caatle-hill
takea 1 hr.; we then ascend for l¡i hr. in the direction of the church
of San Paolo, which liea three-quartera of the way up the hill, follow a
level path round the castle-rock and at the back of the small village of
Canossa, and lastly mount to the summit of the rock, which is crowned
by the scanty, ivy-clad ruins of the caatle of Canossa. The castle once
belonged to the Countesa of Tuacany above mentioned, and was destroyed
by the inhabitants of Reggio in 1255. The Emp. Henry IV. performed
penance here in presence of Pope Gregory VII. during three daya in 1077.
Magniflcent view of the Apenninea towards the S., with the castle of Rossena
in the foreground, and of the vast plain of the Po towards the N., with
Parma, Reggio, and Modena. — From Canossa to Parma viá San Polo
cCEnza and Traversetolo, see p. 370.