to Bologna. PIACENZA. 50. Route. 359
In 1447 it was plundered by Francesco Sforza, a blow from which it never
entirely recovered. In 1545 it flnally carne into the posaeaaion of the
Farneae family and waa united to Parma.
The picturesque Piazza db' Cavalli (Pl. C, D, 2), the chief
centre of trafile, derives its ñame from the affected equestrian
bronze Statues of the Dukes Alessandro Farnese (d. 1592; p. 365)
and Ranuccio Farnese (1592-1622), by Francesco Mocchi of Tus¬
cany (1620-25). — Behind the statues is situated the *Palazzo
Comunalb, erected in 1281 et seq., and described by Burckhardt as
'one of the earliest instances of a worthy and monumental embodi-
ment in stone and lime of the growing spirit of municipal indepen-
dence'. On the groundfloor there is a spacious marble arcade with
flve pointed arches; in the upper floor are six rich round-arch win¬
dows (of terracotta), above which rise handsome pinnacles.
San Francesco (Pl. 2; D, 2), a brick edifice in the Piazza, with
Gothic interior, was erected in 1278. In front of it a marble statue
of G. D. Romagnosi (A. 1835), author of the penal code for the
Napoleonic kingdom of Italy, was unveiled in 1867.
The Via Venti Setiembre leads to the S.E. to the Piazza del
Duomo, in which rises the —
*Cathedral (Pl. D, 3), a Lombard-Romanesque edifice dating
from 1122, with a superstructure addedin the 13th century. In the
facade are three projecting porches (the central with columns resting
on lions), abo re which are a circular window and open galleries with
dwarf pillars. The entire edifice was restored in 1898-1901.
Interior. Over the main entrance is a Gothic reredos (15th cent.).
The church containa admirable 'Freacoea by Guercino (prophets and sibyls)
in the dome, and by Lodovico Carracci (angels strewing flowers) in the
arches in front of the choir. The crypt is borne by 100 columna.
To the S.W. of the Piazza del Duomo, at the beginning of the
Via S. Salvatore, rises Sant' Antonino (Pl. D, 3), formerly the
cathedral, dating from the 12th cent, and several times restored, the
last time in 1857, of curious irregular shape. The wide transept is
near the W. end of the church, and from its intersection with the
nave rises a tower borne by eight massive round columns.
A modern inscription in the flne oíd Gothic veatibule, called 'Para-
diao' (1350), commemorates the fact that the delegatea of the league of
Lombard cities, asscmbled in the church in 1183, there approved of tho
Peace of Constance.
To the E. of the Piazza del Duomo lies the very ancient church
of San Savino (Pl. E, 3), with a freely modernized interior. The
mosaic pavement (lOth cent?) in the crypt, with representations of
the months, the signs of the zodiac, etc., repays a visit.
To the N.E. is the Palazzo dei Tribunali (Pl. 6, E 2; formerly
Landi), built by Giov. Batcagio (1484). It possesses two picturesque
dilapidated courts, fragments of a handsome terracotta frieze, and a
rich early-Renaissance portal (on the N.E.).
To the N.W. of this palazzo, at the córner of the Via Fel. Cavallotti
and the Via San Pietro, lies the Biblioteca Comunale (Pl. 1; D, 2).