STRADELLA. 49. Route. 357
ita ambasaadora at the Congress of Vienna, rather to hand over their
country to an 'infernal than to the papal government'. By an edict of 15th
Angust, 1814, no fewer than 1824 dissolved monasteries and 612 nunneries
were re-erected in the States of the Church. The Code Napoleón was
aboliahed, and the eccleaiastical administration, as organised by Six tus V.
in 1590, re-eatablished. The four northernmost provinces, Bologna, Fer¬
rara, Ravenna, and Forli, were governed by a cardinal with the title of
Légate (whence these districts were called legations), whose sway was
arbitrary and despotic in the extreme. The courta of justice and all the chief
magistracies were adminiatered by priests, and never probably did a gov¬
ernment earn for itself such a fund of hatred from its subjects. In
1821, 1831, and 1848,, the Emilia succeeded in throwing off the yoke of its
dakes and legates, but on each occasion the insurrection was crushed
by Austrian intervention. The war of 1859 rendered the rising under Farini
a more successful undertaking, and by the plebiscite of 12th March, 1860,
the annexation of the Emilia to Piedmont waa accompliahed.
49. From Turin to Piacenza viá Alessandria.
117 M. Railway in 3ty4-8V2 hrs. (fares 21 fr. 85, 15 fr. 30, 9 fr. 85 c;
express 24 fr., 16 fr. 80 c).
From Turin to Alessandria, 5672 M., seeR.llc. Beyond Alessandria
we traverse the battlefield of Marengo (p. 53). 61^2 M. Spinetta, to
the S.E. of Marengo. — 66 M. San Giuliano. The train crosses the
At (70 M.) Tortona our line unites with that from Milán to
Genoa viá Voghera (see p. 205), which we follow to (8072 M.) Voghera.
We now skirt the N. spurs of the Apennines. 8672 M. Casteggio,
the Clastidium (p. 126) of the wars between the Romans and Gauls ;
94 M. Broni. — 96 M. Stradella (330 ft.), a town of 6600 inhabitants.
From Stradella to Bressana-Bottarone and Pavia, see p. 205; steam-
tramway to (I51/2 M.) Voghera, see p. 205.
At (9872 M.) Arena-Po we enter the plain of the Po. 103 M.
Castel San Giovanni. — 112 M. San Nicolb, in the plain of the
Trebbia (ancient Trebia), memorable for the victory gained by Han-
nibal, B.C. 218, over the Romans.
117 M. Piacenza, see p. 358.
50. From Milán to Bologna viá Parma and Modena.
134 M. Railway in 3>/2-7 hrs. (fares 25 fr. 10, 17 fr. 55, 11 fr. 30 c.;
expresa 27 fr. 60, 19 fr. 30 c). To Piacenza, 42 M., in l-2'/4 hrs. (fares
7 fr. 90, 5 fr. 55, 3 fr. 55 c.; express 8 fr. 70, 6 fr. 10 c). A dining-car
(déj. 372, D. 4t/2 fr) ia attaehed to the fastest train. The 'lightning expreaa'
mentioned at p. 370 may be used as far aa Parma.
Milán, see p. 128. — At (472 M.) Rogoredo the line to Pavia,
Voghera, and Genoa diverges to the right (see p. 162 and R. 32). —
11 M. Melegnano (290 ft), formerly Marignano, is a memorable
place in the annals of mediaeval and modern warfare. Here, on
i4th Sept., 1515, Francis I. of France, in his campaign against
Massimiliano Sforza (p. 127), defeated the Swiss allies of Milán, 7000