VI. THE EMILIA.
Rimini to Piacenza, viá Bologna, Modena, Reggio, and Parma, a distance
of 150 M., called the Via AEmilia, whence the whole district derived the
ancient ñame which it still retains. Down to the time of Caesar, although
the Román language and customs had spread rapidly here, the district was
officially known as Gallia Cispadana, the 'Province of Gaul on this side of
the Po', and the Rubicán formed the frontier of Italy; but in B.C. 43 it
was flnally united with the latter.
The institutiona of antiquity lingered here longer than in any other
part of Italy. In 402 the Emperor Honorius transferred his residence to
Ravenna, which alao continued to be the capital of the Gothic kinga.
After the overthrow of the Gothic domination by Belisariusia 539, Ravenna
became the aeat of the Exarchs, and the Italian centre of the Eastern
Román Empire. The Lombards since 568 attacked and flnally took posses¬
sion of it, but it was soon wrested from them by the Frankish king Pepin,
who is said to have presented the whole exarchate, i.e. the coast-diatrict
from the Po to Ancona, to the Román Church in 755. At firat, however,
the real supremacy over the diatrict waa held by the Archbishop of Ra¬
venna. The States of the Church never constituted a uniform whole like
those of Milán or Venice. They consisted of a number of towns, princi-
palities, and monasteries, often estranged from the pontifical throne, and
not unfrequently in arma against it. The pope appointed cardinals as hia
legates in the different districts, but their power was limited, since the
most important prerogatives were usnrped by his subjects. Meanwhile
the Towns in the Emilia prospered greatly, and became famous aa eradles
of Science , notwithatanding the feud between Guelpha and Ghibellinea,
princea, nobles, and burghera, which raged within and without their walls.
Román Law, which after the Germanic invasión had been preserved in
several towns and districta, began to be studied scientiflcally at Ravenna
in the llth century. From the 12th cent, onwards, owing to the unsettled
condition of righta, the study became very prevalent, Bologna being ita
great centre, whence a knowledge of Román Law gradually extended over
the other countries of Europe (comp. p. 388).
The Political History of these districts during the middle ages re¬
cords continual atruggles for precedence among several rival powera. Aa
long aa the power of the emperors was in the ascendant, they kept the
pretenaiona of the popea in check. Nicholas III. waa the flrst pope to
obtain control of the entire Romagna (in 1278). During the exile of the
popea at Avignon, the dismemberment of the papal dominions seemed
imminent, but after protracted combats it was prevented by Cardinal d'Al¬
bornoz, a valiant Spaniard who was sent to Italy by Innocent IV. in 1353.
Even those princes, however, who consented to acknowledge the papal
supremacy, still continued practically independent. It is difficult to aay
how often the stubborn citizens of Bologna were aubdued by the popea,
only to rise again in successful revolt. Alexander VI. and his son Cesare
Borgia at length put an end to this insubordination about 1499; they
extirpated the dynasties of the Romagna with fíre and sword, and from
that period the papal fiefa began to be gradually converted into a átate
in the modern aense. Under Julius II. and Leo X. the papal supremacy
was farther extended to Modena, Parma, and Piacenza. In 1545 Paul III.
Farnese invested Pier Luigi, his natural son, with the last two aa a duchy,
which, on the extinction of the Farnese in 1731, carne into the poaseaaion
of the Spaniah Bourbons. In Modena and Reggio, the house of Este main-
tained its supremacy in spite of the papal pretenaiona, while Ferrara in
1597 waa incorporated with the States of the Church.
The whole of the existing institutions were at length overthrown by
the French Revolution. Napoleón I. united Parma to France, and annexed
Modena and the Romagna to hia kingdom of Italy. Though thua under
toreign domination, the country now enjoyed a period of active and uaeful
internal reform, which, however, waa rudely interrupted by the fall of
.Napoleón and the eatabhshment of Austrian supremacy over these districta.
Parma waa awarded to Marie Louise, and Modena to Archduke Francis, the
heir of the last Eate (who died in 1803 with the title of Duke of Breiagan).
The worst lot befe' *he i™»™». ;„ muft nf «,« entreaty addreased by