VI. The Emilia.
49. From Turin to Piacenza viá Alessandria......357
50. From Milán to Bologna viá Parma and Modena. Pia¬
From Piacenza to Ponte dell' Olio and Velleia; to Genoa
viá Bobbio, 860, 361. — Salsomaggiore 361. — From
Reggio to.Canossa, to Sarzana, and to Guastalla, 363,
364. Correggio, 364.
52. From Parma (Milán) to Sarzana (Spezia, Pisa). . . 370
53. Modena................... 372
From Modena to Mirándola and to Sassuolo (Piandela-
gotti). Road from Modena to Pistoia. From Modena
to Vignola, 376.
5i. From Venice to Bologna viá Padua and Ferrara. . . 376
From Rovigo to Chioggia. Cento, 378.
From Ferrara to Codigoro and to Ravenna, 336.
From Piazza del Nettuno and Piazza Vittorio Emanuele
to San Domenico and the S.W. quarters, 390. — From
Piazza del Nettuno to San Pietro and the S.E.. E., and
N.E. quarters, 396. — Environa of Bologna, 406.
57. From Bologna to Florence viá Pistoia.......407
From Sasso to Prato, 407. — From Pracchia to Bosco-
58. From Bologna to Ravenna...........403
59. From Ravenna (or Bologna) to Florence viá Faenza . 420
The Emilia includea the former duchiea of Parma and Modena, as well
as the papal Romagna, and is now divided into the eight provinces of
Piacenza, Parma, Reggio, Modena, Bologna, Ferrara, Ravenna, and Forli,
covering an área of 7920 sq. M., with a population of 2,478,000 souls. The
dialects spoken here form the third main group of the Gallic languages
of Upper Italy, and the nasal sound of the vowels will at once strike the
traveller as indicating the original affinity of the people with the French.
The Celta crossed the Alps in several migrations. After the Insubri had
conquered the district of Milán, and the Cenomani Brescia and Verona,
the tribe of the Boii crossed the Po about 400 B.C, and subjugated the
Etruscans and Umbrians who were settled to the S. of that river. They
chose Bologna for their capital, in the ñame of which is still preaerved
that of the conquerors. The Senones next invaded Italy, and took posses¬
sion of the coast-district to the S. of the Boii, extending nearly to An-
cona. It waa a horde of theae Gaula that destroyed Rome in B.C. 389.
About a century later Italy, united under the leadership of Rome, began
to reconquer the lost territory. In 283 the Senones were exterminated.
In 269 a colony was established at Ariminum, which was constituted the
strongest frontier-fortress in the peninaula, and connected with Rome
by the Via Flaminia. In 224 the Boii were aubjugated, and in planting
the coloniea of Placentia and Cremona in 219, Rome extended her frontier
aa far as the Po. This process of Latinisation waa interrupted by the in-
vaaion of Hannibal, but vigorously resumed after his defeat; and in 189
Bologna, and in 183 Modena and Parma received Román colonies. M. d¡milius
Lepidus, who waa cónsul in B.C. 187, constructed a military road from