298 Route 47. VENICE. a. Piazza of St. Mark :
tinople, erected here in 1180; one of them bears the Winged Lion
of St. Mark (shattered at Paris in 1815, but put together again in
1893) ; the other, St. Theodore on a crocodile, patrón of the ancient
republic, placed here in 1329. This used to be the place of execu¬
tion; it is now (at the Molo) the chief stand for góndolas (p. 283).
The Venetian phrase 'fra Marco e Todaro' corresponds to our 'be¬
tween hammer and anviT.
Tho **01d Library (Librería Vecchia), erected by Sansovino in
1536-53, is a magniflcent building of the 16th cent., and one of
the flnest secular ediflces in Italy. The N.E. end was damaged by
the fall of the Campanile. In plan it consists of a double colonnade
with arches and embedded columns. In the upper colonnade the
arches rest upon a sepárate series of smaller fluted columns of the
Ionic order. The effect is so fine as to justify certain liberties
Sansovino has taken, such as that of enlarging the metopes at
the expense of tho triglyphs and architrave. The caryatides at
the main portal are by Al. Vittoria. The building is now united with
the Procuratie Nuove to form the royal palace (p. 293).
'The Library of St. Mark remains the crowning triumph of Venetian
art. It is impossible to contémplate its noble double row of open arches
without echoing the judgment of Palladio, that nothing more sumptuous
or beautiful had been invented since the age of ancient Rome' (J. A. Symonds).
Interior. In the Antechamber of the Library is a ceiling-painting
representing Wisdom, by Titian (a late work). — The Main Saloon is em-
bellished with portraits of twelve philosophers (incl. Diogenes and Ar-
chimedes by Tintoretto) and ceiling-paintings by Paolo Veronese (Geometry,
Arithmetie, andMusic; 1556) and othf rs. Two large frescoes by, Tintoretto,
formerly in tbe Scuola di San Marco, represent a Miracle of St. Mark
(rescue of a Saracen during a storm) and the "Transference of tbe relies
of the saint t'rom Alexandria (p. 294). We may also note: Rocco Marconi,
Tbe womau taken in adultery; Bonifazio, Madonna with SS. Homobonus
and Barbara (1530).
On the Lagune, between the Library and the Royal Garden, is
the oíd Zecca (Pl. H, 6; henee 'zecchino' or 'sequin') or Mint, also
built by Sansovino in 1536. Since 1905 it has accommodated. the
celebrated Library of St. Mark (Biblioteca Marciana; adm. see
p. 238; special permission necessary for the MSS. and códices),
founded in 1468 by Card. Bessarione and transferred at Napoleon's
command from the Oíd Library to the Doges' Palace in 1812. The
library contains 300,000 printed volumes and about 11,000 MSS.
Ground Floor. The vestibule is adorned with two Atlantes, by Girol.
Campagna and Tiziano Aspelti. The une hall is used as a reading-room.
The other rooms contain the modern books.
First Floor. From the loggia we enter 1he two MSS. rooms. Tbe
show-cases in the first of these contain some splendid Byzantine book-
covers of the 9-lltb cent ; a copy of Dante of the second balf of the 14tb
cent., with numerous miniatures, and thé "Breviario Grimani, a famous
early-Flemish breviary of the beginning of the I6th cent., with beautiful
miniatures in the atyle of Mabuse and Gerard David; other valuableMSSt;
and books printed in Venice.
The older books, including many incunabula and valuable Aldine
editions, are pi............