258 Route 42. MANTUA. From Verona
of culture and education. He was succeeded by Lodovico III. (1444-78).
The beautiful and accomplished Isabella d'Este (1474-1539), sister of
Alphonso, Duke of Ferrara, and mother of Eleonora of Urbino, was
the wife of Giovanni Francesco III. (1484-1519). She carried on a lively
correspondence with the most eminent men of her time, and with judicious
taste collected valuable books, pictures, and antiquities. In 1530 Federigo II.
(1519-40) was raised to the rank of duke by Charles V., and in 1536 he
was invested with the marquisate of Monteferrato; a monument of his reign
is the Palazzo de] Té (p. 262). In 1627, when Charles de Nevers, a member
of a French collateral line, ascended the throne, the Mantuan war of
succession broke out, and Emperor Ferdinand II. declared the fief forfeited.
On 18th July, 1630, Mantua was stormed and sacked by the Austrians.
Although the emperor, hard pressed by the Swedes, was obliged to con-
clude peace in 1631, the town never recovered from this blow. Carlo IV.,
the last duke, taking the French aide in the Spaniah war of succession,
waa declared an outlaw in 1703; Monteferrato was awarded to Piedmont,
and Mantua to Austria, of whose aupremacy in Italy it became the chief
support. After a long and obstínate defence by General Wurmser the
fortresa capitulated to the French on 2nd February, 1797. By the Peace of
Villafranca the Austrians retained Mantua although deprived of the rest of
Lombardy, but they were compelled to cede it to Italy in 1866.
In the history of Architecture Mantua is of importance on account
of the buildings of León Bullista Alberti (p. 470) of Florence, who had
been summoned to Mantna by Lodovico III. — Mantua also witnessed
the labours of several great Renaissance Painters. Andreu Mantegna
(p. 271) entered the service of Lodovico III. in 1463. In vigour of con-
ception and in the fidelity of his characters he rivals his best contem-
poraries, while he surpasses them in accuracy of perspective and in his
refined taste for beauty of landscape. He died at Mantua in 1506, and waa
succeeded as court - painter in the following year by Lorenzo Costa (comp.
pp. 380, 389). When Raphael's pupils were dispersed after his death
(1520), Giulio Romano (1492-1546), the greatest of them, settled at Mantua
in 1524, and there attained so high a reputation as an architect and
painter, that Mantua has been called the 'town of Giulio Romano'. Aftei
the example of Raphael's work in the Farneaina, he composed mythological
decorative paintings, which, though far inferior to their prototype, attract
by the richness of the motives and sensuous magnificence of composition,
and are important owing to the influence they exercised on later art.
Francesco Primaticcio and Niccolb dell' Abbate, pupila of Giulio Romano
who were educated here, were afterwarda summoned to Fontainebleau,
and thus formed a link between the French and the Italian Renaissance.
Giulio Romano's worka must also have influenced the atyle of Rubens, who
was court-painter at Mantua in 1600-8, under Vincenzo II.
From the railway-station we follow the quiet Corso Vittorio
Emanuele (Pl. A, B, 3), and, crossing the rapid Rio, which unites
the Lago Superiore and Lago Inferiore, enter the Coeso Umberto
Pkimo (Pl. B, C, 3; formerly Via Sogliari), to the arcades of which
the trafflc of the town is chiefly conflned. — A little farther on, in
the small Piazza Andrea Mantegna, rises —
Sant' Andrea (Pl. C, 2, 3), a building of imposing proportions,
and the most important church in Mantua. It was begun in 1472-94
from designs by León Battista Alberti; the transept and choir were
erected in 1597-1600 by Ant. Viani; while the dome, designed by
FU. Juvara, was not added till 1732-82. The white marble facade
with its spacious pórtico, is conceived in the style of a classic
temple ; adjoining it is a square Gothic tower of red brick with an
elegant octaeonal superstructure (1414).