The Railway Station (Pl. A, 4; Restaurant) liea at the S.W. end ofthe
town, near the Porta Stazione. Town Office at Via San Martino 5 (Pl. C, 3).
Hotels. Albergo d'Italia (Pl. b; C, 3), Corso Zanardelli, with good
restaurant, R. 272-372, omn. 3U fr.; Hotel Bkescia (Pl. a; B, 3), Via Um¬
berto Primo, with steam-heating and restaurant, R. 272-3, omn. 3f\ fr.;
Alb. Looatelli, at the station, very fair; Gallo (Pl. c; C, 3), Via Trieste 3,
R. from 2. steam-heating 74 fr-, plain but good; Pasteo, Via Porta Nuova,
R. from 172, these two with trattorie.
Cafés. Stefanini, Grande, Céntrale, Corso Zanardelli.
Post & Telegraph Office (Pl. 20; C, 2), Piazza Posta.
Fhotogxaphs, by Brogi and Alinari (p. 462), to be had at the galleriea
and at Capitanio's, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 40.
Cabs (Cittadine): 1 fr. per drive, I72 fr. per hour, to the castle 1 fr.
extra. Trunk 20 c.
Tramway from the railway-station and Porta Milano to Porta Venezia.
Principal Attractions (1 day). Municipio (p. 220); Cathedral (p. 220);
Collection of Antiquities (p. 221); San Clemente (p. 222); Martinengo
Galleries (p. 223); Santi Nazzaro e Celso (p. 224); San Francesco (p. 225);
San Giovanni Evangelista (p. 224); walk near the Castello (p. 225).
Brescia (490 ft.), capital of a province and see of a bishop,
with 44,200 inhab., is beautifully situated at the foot of the Alps,
and its numerous fonntains of limpid water lend it an additional
charm. Iron wares, and particularly weapons, form the staple coin-
modities, many of the flre-arms used by the Italian army being made
here. The woollen, linen, and silk faetones also deserve mention.
Brescia, the ancient Celtic Brixia, afterwards a Román colony, was
from 1167 one of tbe most active members of the confederation of Lom¬
bard towns (p. 126). In 1238 it was besieged in vain for two months by
Emp. Frederick II., but in 1258 it fell into the hauds of Ezzelino (p. 245).
It afterwards belonged successively to the Scaligers of Verona, the Visconti
of Milán (1421-26), and the Venetians, the last of whom here successfully
repulsed a Milanese army under Nice. Piccinino in 1438. Brescia vied with
Milán at the beginning of the 16th cent, as one of the wealthiest cities
of Lombardy, but in 1512 waa saeked and burned by the French under
Gastón de Foix (p. 420) after an obatinate defence. Five years later it
was restored to Venice, to which it belonged till 1797, but it has never
recovered its ancient importance. After the unsuccessful revolt of 1848,
Brescia alone of all the Lombard towns rallied, under the youthful Tito
Speri, to Charles Albert's renewed attempt in 1849; but. it was bombarded
by the Austrians under Haynau and after ten days of obstínate street-
fighting was taken on April 2nd. — Arnold of Brescia, a pupil of Abélard,
was one of tbe most prominent leaders of the reforming movement in Italy
in the middle ages; he attacked the secular power and wealth of the clergy,
and after being excommunicated by Hadrian IV. was executed in 1155.
Brescia is noteworthy in the history of art as the birthplace of Alessandro
Bonvicino, surnamed il Moretto (1498-1555). He has been classed with tbe
Venetian school, but erroneously, for nearly all the schools of the 'Terra
Ferma' have had an independent development; and, like the Veronese
masters, he is distinguished from that school by the comparative sober-
ness of his colouring ('subdued silvery tone'), although he vies with the
Venetians in richness and brillianey, while he sometimes reveáis a full
measure of the ideality of the golden period of art. Bonvicino rarely
extended the sphere of his labours beyond his native place, and Brescia is
therefore abundantly stored with his works. The churches here (such as
San Clemente, p. 222) display his fertility, both as a painter cal fresco' and
in oils, forming quite a museum of his pictures. San Giovanni Evangelista
(p. 224), Santi Nazzaro e Celso (p. 224), and the Galleria Martinengo (p. 223)
all contain admirable specimens of hia powers. Among Moretto's pupils