80 Route 18. GENOA. a. Harbour and
afterwards (1768) took possession of the island on their own behalf. In
1797 the aristocratic government of Genoa was superseded by the democratic
'Ligurian Republic', established by Napoleón. In 1805 Liguria was formally
annexed to the Empire of France, and in 1815 to the Kingdom of Sardinia.
To the student of art Genoa offers much of interest. Some of the
smaller churches are of very ancient origin, though usually altered in the
Gothic period. The Renaissance palaces of the Genoese noblesse are, on
the other hand, of the greatest importance, surpassing in number and
magnificence those of any other city in Italy. Many of these palaces were
erected by Galeazzo Alessi (1512-72; a pupil of Miehael Angelo, born at
Perugia), whose style was followed by aubaequent architects. In spite of
occasional defeets, Alessi's architecture ia of an imposing and uniform
character, and displays great ingenuity in making the best of unfavour¬
able and limited sitea. The palacea, moreover, contain a conaiderable
number of works of art, while Rubens, who resided at Genoa in 1606-8,
and Van Dyck at a later period, have preserved the memory of many
members of the noblesse. The native school of art, however, never rose
to importance, and was far from being benefited by the zeal of its artists
in painting facades. The chief paintera were Luca Cambiaso (1527-85), Ber-
nardo Slrozzi,' surnamed // Cappuccino or Prele Genovese (1581-1644), Giov.
Batt. Paggi (1554-1627), Benedetto Castiglione (1616-70), and Bartolomeo Bis-
a. The Harbour and the Adjoining Streets.
Until recently the harbour consisted solely of the Porto or inner
harbour, which was closed on the S. by the Molo Vecchio (492 yds.
long), said to have been constrncted in 1134, and by the Molo
Nuovo (722 yds. long), dating from the 18th centnry. In 1877-95,
however, very extensive additions were made, largely at the cost of
the Duke of Galliera (d. 1876). The Molo Nuovo was prolonged
to the S.E. by the Molo Duca di Galliera (abont 1 M. long), and
on the E. side a new breakwater, the Molo Giano or Oriéntale
(550 yds. long), was added, creating a new harbour (Porto Nuovo)
and an outer basin (Avamporto Vittorio Eman. Secondo) for war-
vessels (comp. the Map, p. 94). The aggregate water-area of these
different basins is 555 acres; the length of the quays (caíate) is 5 M.
To cope with the rapidly increasing trade, to which the new Sim¬
plón Railway (p. 3) is expected to contribute, a large new coal-
harbour (Bacino Vitt. Eman. Terzo), 53 acres in área, is being
constructed between the Molo Duca di Galliera and, the Capo del
Faro (p. 91). — In 1904 the harbour was entered and cleared by
12,276 vessels, with an aggregate burden of over 12,000,000 tons.
The valué of the imports (3,075,789 tons; chiefly cotton, coal,
and grain) was 539,000,000 fr., that of the exports (232,300 tons)
was 411,000,000 fr.
To reach the harbour from the railway-station, we traverse the
Piazza Acquaverde (Pl. C, 2; p. 90) and descend the narrow Via
San Giovanni (Pl. B, C, 2) towards the S. To the right, at the córner
of.the Piazza della Commenda, is the small early-Gothic church of
San Giovanni Battista or di Pre (13th cent.), which originally be-
longed to a lodge of the Knights of St. John. Since a reconstruction
in the 17th cent, the entrance has been at the E. end.