2 Route 1. MONT CENIS TUNNEL.
378i/2 M. Montmélian (921 ft.). The ancient castle was long
the bulwark of Savoy against France until its destruction in 1705
by Louis XIV. — The train now ascends the valley of the Isere. —
386 M. St. Fierre d'Albigny (buffet), the junction of the branch-line
to Albertville and (32 M.) Moütiers-en-Tarentaise; the town lies
opposite on the right bank, commanded by the ruins of a castle. —
Near (388'/2 M0 Chamousset the line turns to the right, and enters
the valley of the Are (Vallée de Maurienne), which here joins the
Isere. 422 M. St. Michel de Maurienne (2330 ft.). NumeTous
tunnels. — 428 M. La Praz (3135 ft.).
431-M. Modane (3465 ft.; Buffet, déj. with wine 4 fr.; Hotel
International et Terminus, R. 272-6, de'j. or D. 3 fr.) is the seat of the
French and Italian custom-house authorities (carriages changed;
departure according to Mid-Europe time).
The train (view to the right) describes a wide curve round the
village, and, passing through two short tunnels, enters the great
Mont Cenis Tunnel, by which the Col de Fréjus (8470 ft.) is pen-
etrated in a S.E. direction, though the ñame is derived from the oíd
Mont Cenis roád, which crosses the Mont Cenis Pass, 17 M. to the E.
The tunnel (V/t M. in length; N. entrance 3800 ft., S. entrance 4100 ft.
above the sea-level; height in the centre 4245 ft., depth below the sur-
face of the mountain 4090 ft.) was completed in 1861 -1870 under the
superintendence of the engineers Sommeiller, Grandis, and Grattoni at a
total cost of 75,000,000 fr. The tunnel is 26 ft. wide, 19 ft. high, and has
two linea of rails. It is lighted by lanterns placed at intervals of 500
métres, and the distances are given in kilométres. The transit oceupies
25-30 minutes. Travellers are warned not to protrude their heads or arms
from the carriage-windows during the transit, and are also recommended
to keep the Windows shut.
At the S. end of the tunnel, 5 M. from the frontier, is (444 M.)
Bardonnecchia (4125 ft.), the flrst Italian station. The best views
are now to the left. — Near (451 M.) Oulx (3500 ft.), the Román
Villa Martis, the line enters the picturesque valley of the Dora
Riparia. Beyond a bridge and two tunnels is (455 M.) Salbertrand
(3303 ft.). Before the next station nine tunnels are traversed. To
the left, between the second and third, a glimpse is obtained of
the small town of Exilies, with the frontier-fortress of that ñame. —
461i/2 M. Chiomonte (2525 ft.). The valley contraets and forms a
wild gorge (Le Gorgie), of which beautiful views are obtained, with
the Mont Cenis road winding up the hill on the farther side, and
the Rocciamelone (Fr. Roche-Melón; 11,604 ft.) and other peaks
towering above it. When the valley expands, Susa, with its Román
triumphal arch, comes in sight on the left (see p. 44). — 466 M.
Meana (1950 ft.), 1 M. from Susa. Three tunnels. The train then
descends through beautiful chestnut-woods, and crosses the Dora.
— 471 M. Bussoleno (1425 ft.), the junction of the branch-line to
Susa described at p. 44.
At (475 M.) Borgont the Dora is crossed. — Beyond (482 M.).
Sant' Ambrouio di Torino Í1160 ft.1 the line trayerses the Chiuse,