ing. A rent lower than that flrst asked for is often accepted. When
a whole suite of apartments is hired, a written contract on stamped
paper should be drawn up with the aid of someone acquainted
with the language and customs of the place (e.g. a banker), in order
that 'misunderstandings' may be prevented. A payment of part of
the rent in advance is a customary stipuiation; but such payments
should never be made until after the landlord has redeenied all his
undertakings with regard to repairs, furnishing, etc. For single
travellers a verbal agreement with regard to attendance, linen, stoves
and carpets in winter, a receptacle for coal. and other details will
generally suffice. Comp. p. xxx.
The popular idea of cleanliness in Italy is behind the age; but
the traveller in the N. part of the country will rarely suffer from this
short-coming even in hotels of the second class, though those who
quit the beaten track must be prepared for privations. Iron bedsteads
should if possible be selected, as they are less likely to harbour the
enemies of repose. Insect-powder (polvere insetticida or contro gli
inselti) or camphor somewhat repels their advances.
The zanzáre, or mosquitoes, are a source of great annoyance, and often
of suffering, during summer and autumn and, on the Riviera, even in
winter. Only a few parts of N. Italy (e.g. Piedmont, the W. lakes, and
Bologna) are free from this pest, which is always worst in the neigh-
bourhood of plantations, cañáis, or ponds. Between June and October the
night should never be spent in malarial districts (Cólico, Morlara, Pavia,
Mantua, Ferrara, Ravenna), where the female of the Anopheles Claviger
frequently conveys the infection of malarial fever with its sting. Small
doses of quinine may be used as a prophylactic. Windows should always
be carefully closed before a light is introduced into the room. Light muslin
curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds, masks for the face, and gloves are
employed to ward off the attaeks of these pertinacious intruders. The
burning of pastilles (fidibus contro le zanzare; in Venice, chiodi), which may
be purchased of the principal enemista, is efficacious, but is accompanied
by a scareely agreeable odour. A weak solution of carbolic acid in water
is efficacious in allaying the discomforts occasioned by the bites.
A list of the Italian ñames of the ordinary articles of underclothing
(la biancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman: Shirt
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camicia (di tela, di cotone, di lana); night-shirt,
la camicia da notte; collar, ¡! salino, il colletto; cuff, il polsino; drawers,
le mutande; woollen under-shirt, una flanella or giubba diflanella ormaglia;
petticoat, la sottana; stocking, la calza; sock, la calzetta; handkerchief
(silk), il fazoletto (di seta). To give out to wash, daré a bucato (di bucato,
newly washed); washing list, la nota; washerwoman, laundress, la stira-
trice, la lavandaia; buttons, i bottoni.
X. Restaurants. Cafés. Birrerie.
Restaurants(Ristoranti, Trattorie)arefrequentedbetween i la.m.
and 2p.m. for luncheon (collazione) and between 6.30 and 8.30 p.m.
for dinner (pranzo). Meáis are usually served alia carta at modérate
prices; meáis a prezzo fisso (21/2-5fr.) are not customary except in a
few restaurants largely frequented by foTeigners and are, in general,
not recommended. When there is no bilí of fare the waiter (cameriere)
will recite the list of dishes. If too importúnate in his recom-
mendations or suggestions he may be checked with the word 'basta\