be dispensed with by those who are not pressed for time. Purchases
should never be made, ñor contracts with vetturini or other persons
drawn up, in presence or with the aid of a commissionnaire, as any
such intervention tends considerably to increase the prices.
VIL Railways. Steamboats.
Railways. — For visitors to Northern Italy the most important
railways are the Rete Mediterránea, the Rete Adriático, and the
Ferrovie Nord Milano, the last affording quick and convenient access
to the Lake of Como and the Lago Maggiore, though it is not in-
cluded in the system of circular tours in Italy. The rate of travelling
is very modérate, rarely reaching 30 M. per hour. The flrst-class
carriages are comfortable, the second resemble the English andFrench,
while the third class is chiefly frequented by the lower orders.
Among the expressions wiih which the railway-traveller will soon
become familiar are — '««' cambia treno'' (change carriages), '/ermaío' (halt;
'quanti minuti di fermata?', how long do we stop here?), 'essere in coin-
ciienza" (to make connection), and '•uscita' (egress). Fare il biglietto means to
take a ticket. Questo posto e preso f Is thi3 seat engaged 1 Dove parte il treno
per Venezia? Where does the train for Venice start? Quale rotaiaf Which
line? The station-master is called '■capostazione'; the guard, conduttore.
Smoking-compartments are labelled lpei fumatort, those for non-smokers
•fielato di fumare'.
The international trains de luxe are generally available for long-distance
travellers only. The mail trains are called Treni Direttissimi (lst and
2nd class only; sometimes with dining and sleeping cars) and the ordinary
expresses Treni Diretti. The Treni Accelerati are somewhat faster than the
Treni Ómnibus. The Treni Misti are composed partly of passenger-carriages
and partly of goods-waggons. The fares of the Rete Adriatica and Rete
Mediterránea are (for the three classes) 12.75, 8.93, and 5.80 c. per kilométre
by the express-trains, and 11.60, 8.12, and 5.22 c. by the slow trains. In
addition to this there is a government tax of 3 per cent, on all fares above
90 c. (included in the fares given in the railway time-tables), and there is
also a stamp-duty ol 5 c. on each ticket.
The best Time Table is the Orario Ufficiale delle Strade Ferróte,
delle Tramvie, delta Navigazione e delle Messaggerie postali del Regno,
published by the Fratelli Pozzo at Turin (price 1 fr.). Smaller
editions are issued at 80 c, 50c, and 20 c. — Railway time is that
of Central Europe.
Tickets. At the larger towns it is better, when possible, to take
the tickets at the town-agencies (agenzia di citta) of the railway. At
the stations the traveller will flnd it convenient to have as nearly
as possible the exact fare ready in his hand. In addition to the fare
proper there is a tax of 5 c. on each ticket. 'Mistakes' are some¬
times made by the ticket-clerks. — It is important to be at the
station early in the case of terminal stations; at other stations the
trains are frequently late. The ticket-office at large stations is open
40 min., at small stations 20 min. before the departure of the train.
Ticket-holders alone have the right of admission to the waiting-
rooms. At the end of the jonrney tickets are given np at the uscfta.
— Holders of tickets for distances over 124 M. may break the