send him the keys. As a rale it is advisable, and often in the end
less expensive, never to part from one's luggage, and to super-
intend the custom-house examination in person (comp. p. xviii).
V. Fublic Safety. Beggars.
Public Safety in Northern Italy is on as stable a footing as to the
N. of the Alps. Travellers will naturally avoid lonely quarters
after night-fall, just as they would at home. The policeman in the
town is called Guardia; the gendarme in the country, Carabiniere
(black coat with red facings and cocked hat). No one may carry
weapons without a licence, on pain of imprisonment. Armi in¬
sidióse, i.e. concealed weapons (sword-sticks; even knives with
spring-blades, etc.), are absolutely prohibited.
Begging (accattonaggio), always one of those national nuisances
to which the traveller in Italy must accustom himself, has recently
somewhatincreased, especial ly in Tuscany, owing partly to growing
poverty, but largely also to the misplaoed generosity of travellers.
As the profi-ts of street-beggars too frequently go for the support of
able-bodied loafers, travellers should either give nothing, or rcstrict
their charity to the obviously infirm. Gratuities to children are
entirely reprehensible. — Importúnate beggars should be dismissed
with 'niente' or by a gesture of negation.
VI. Gratuities. Guides.
Gratuities. — The traveller should always be abundantly
supplied with copper and nickel coin in a country where trifling
donations are in constant demand. Drivers, guides, and other per¬
sons of the same class invariably expeet, and often demand as their
right, a gratuity (buona mano , mancia, da bere, bottiglia, caffe,
sigaro) in addition to the hire agreed on, varying according to circum-
stances from 2-3 sous to a franc or more. The traveller need have
no scruple in limiting his donations to the smallest possible sums.
The following hints will be found useful by the average tourist. In
prívate collections 1-2 visitors should bestow a gratuity of i/2-l fr.,
3-4 pers. l-l'/a fr- Eor repeated visits 25 c. is enough for a single
visitor. For opening a church-door, etc., 10-20 c. is enough, but if
extra services are rendered (t.g. uncovering an altar-piece, lighting
candles, etc.) from 1/4 to 1 fr. may be given. The Custodi of all
public collections where an admission-fee is charged are forbidden
to accept gratuities. — In hotels and restaurants about 5-10 per
cent of the reckoning should be given in gratuities, or lesB if service
is charged for.
Gnides (Ouide, sing. la Ouida) may be hired at 6-10 fr. per day.
The most trustworthy are those attached to the chief hotels. In
some towns the better guides have formed societies as 'Guide
paténtate' or 'Guide autorizzate'. Their services may generally well