It is quite possible íot persons entirely ignorant of Italian and
French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort; but such trav¬
ellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and
are moreover invariably made to pay lalla Inglese' by hotel-keepers
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French
is very useful, as the Italians are very partial to that language ; but
for those who desire the ntmost possible freedom, and dislike being
imposed upon, a slight acquaintance with the language of the country
is indispensable. Those who know a little Italian, and who take
the usual precantion of ascertaining charges beforehand (con-
trattare , bargain) in the smaller hotels , in dealings with drivers,
gondoliers, guides, etc., and in shops, will rarely meet with attempts
at extortion in Northern Italy.+
IV. Fassports. Cnstom House. Luggage.
Passports, though not required in Italy, are occasionally useful,
as for example, in obtaining the delivery of registered letters. The
countenance and help of the English and American consuls can, of
course, be extended to those persons only who can prove their
nationality. Cyclists and motorists should always carry passports.
The Italian pólice authorities are generally civil and obliging.
Passports may be obtained direct from the Foreign Office (fee 2í.) or
through C. Smith <k Son, 23 Craven St., Charing Cross (charge is., includ¬
ing agent's fee); Buss, 4 Adelaide St., Strand (is.); Cook <ü Son, Ludgate
Circus (3s. Gd ); and Blacklock & Co. ('Bradshaw's Guides'), 59 Fleet St (5«.).
Custom House. The examination of luggage at the Italian
frontier railway-stations is generally lenient, but complaints are
sometimes made as to a deficiency of offlcial courtesy at diligence
and steamer stations. Tobacco and cigars(only ten pass free), playing
cards, and matches are the articles chiefly sought for. The custom-
house receipts should be preserved, as travellers are sometimes chal-
lenged by the excise offlcials in the interior. At the gates of most
of the Italian towns a tax (dazio consumo) is levied on comestibles,
but travellers' luggage is passed at the barriers (limite daziario) on
a simple declaration that it contains no such articles.
Luggage. If possible, luggage should never be sent to Italy
by goods-train, as it is liable to damage , püferage, and undue
custom-house detention. If the traveller is obliged to forward it in
this way, he should employ a trustworthy agent at the frontier and
+ A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons un-
acquainted with the language. C before e and t is pronounced like the
English ch; g before « and • like j. Before other vowels c and g are
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede « or i, are hard. Se before «
or i is pronounced like sh; gn and gl between vowels like nyí and lyí.
His silent. The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced ah, á, ee, o, oo. — In ad-
dressing persons of the educated classes 'Lei', with the ord pers. sing.,
should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' witb the
3rd pers. pl). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc.