S. = south, etc. (also supper).
E. = east, etc.
W. = west, etc.
R. = room (including light and
B. = breakfast.
D. = dinuer.
A~ = attendance.
L. = light.
déj. = déjeuner 'á la fourchette'.
rfmts. = refreshments.
pena. = pensión (i.e. board and lodg-
fr. = franc (Ital. lira).
c = centime (Ital. centesimo).
h. = Krone (Austrian currency).
h. = Heller (Austrian currency).
ca. = circa (about).
comp. = compare.
carr. = carriage.
The letter d with a date, after the ñame of a person, indicates the
year of his death. The number prefixed to the ñame of a place on a rail¬
way or Uighroad Id dicates its distance in English miles from the starting-
point of the route or sub-route. The number of feet given after the ñame
of a place shows its height above the sea-level.
Asterisks are used as marks of commendation.
Chronological Table of Recent Events.
1846. June 16. Election of Pius IX.
1848. March 18. Insurrection at Milán. — March 22. Charles Albert enters
Milán. Republic proclaimed at Venice. — May 15. Insurrection at
Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. ('Re Bomba'). — May 30. Radetzky
defeated at Goito; capitulation of Peschiera. — July 25. Radetzky's
victory at Cnstozza. — Aug. 6. Radetzky's victory at Milán. —
Aug. 9. Armistice. — Nov. 25. Flight of the Pope to Gaeta.
1849. Feb. 5. Republic proclaimed at Rome. — March 16. Charles Albert
terminates the armistice (tendays1 campaign). — March 23. Radetzky's
victory at Novara. — Mar. 24. Charles Albert abdicates ; accession of
Victor Emmanuel II. — Mar. 26. Armistice. — Mar. 31. Haynau
conquers Brescia. — April 5. Republic at Genoa overthrown by La-
marmora. — Apr. 30. Garibaldi defeats the French under Oudinot. —
May 15. Subjugation of Sicily. — July 4. Rome capitulates. —
Aug. 6. Peace concluded between Austria and Sardinia. — Aug. 22.
1850. April 4. Pius IX. returns to Rome.
1855. Sardinia takes part in the Crimean War.
1856. Congress at Paris. Cavour raises the Italian question.
1859. May 20. Battle of Montebello. — June 4. Battle of Magenta. —
June 24. Battle of Solferino. — Nov. 10. Peace of Zurich.
1860. March 18. Annexation of the Emilia. — Mar. 22. Annexation of
Tuscany. — Mar. 24. Cession of Savoy and Nice. — May 11. Garibaldi
lands at Marsala. — May 27. Taking of Palermo. — July 20. Battle
of Melazzo. — Sept. 7. Garibaldi enters Naples. — Oct. 1. Battle of
the Volturno. — Oct. 21. Plebiscite at Naples. — Dec. 17. Annexa¬
tion of the principalities, Umbria, and the two Sicilies.
1861. Feb. 13. Gaeta capitulates. — March 17. Victor Emmanuel assumes
the title of King of Italy. — June 6. Death of Cavour.
1866. June 20. Battle ofCustozza. — July 5. Cession of Venetia. — July 20.
Naval battle of Lissa.
1870. Sept. 20. Occupation of Rome by Italian troops. — Oct. 9. Rome
declared the capital of Italy.
1878. Jan. 9. Death of Victor Emmanuel II.; accession of Humbert I. —
Feb. 7. Death of Pius IX. — Feb. 20. Election of Leo XIII.
1900. July 29. Assassination of Humbert I; accession of Victor Emmanuel III.
1903. July 20 Death of Leo XIH. — Aug. 4. Election of Pius X.