acquainted with the language and habits of the country may suc¬
ceed in reducing their expenses to still narrower limits. Persons
travelling as members of a party may effect a considerable saving.
Where ladies are of the party the expenses are always unavoidably
greater; not merely because the better hotels, and the more com¬
fortable modes of locomotion are selected, but because the Italians
regard the traveller in this case as wealthier, and therefore a
more fitting object for extortion.
In the Kingdom of Italy the French monetary system is now
universal. The franc (lira or franco) contains 100 centesimi.
1 fr. 25 c. = Is. = 10 silbergroschen = 35 German kreuzer =
50 Austrian kreuzer. The silver coins in common circulation
are Italian pieces of 1 and 2 fr., and Italian or French 5 fr.
pieces; gold coins of the Italian or French currency of 10 and
20 fr. are the commonest (those of 5 and 40 fr. rare).
Since the introduction of a paper currency during the war
of 1866, at a compulsory rate of exchange, gold and silver coins
have almost entirely disappeared from ordinary circulation. This
at first gave rise to great confusion, as not only the principal
banks, hut the different provinces and towns issued notes of
their own, which were not available beyond the limits of their
respective districts. This state of matters has, however, now
been remedied to a great extent, but as the relative values of
banknotes and the precious metals still differ, the traveller
should endeavour to familiarise himself with the present rates
of exchange. The notes of the Banca Nazionale, for 1, 2, 5, 10,
20, 25, 50, 100 francs, and upwards, are current throughout the
whole of Italy. The principal banks also issue notes of lji^-i
which are not, however, readily taken except within the district
of their issue. Thus at Rome and in the environs the papal
notes and those of the Banca del Popolo, at Naples and
throughout S. Italy those of the Banca di Napoli, and in Sicily
those of the Banca di Sicilia are confined to local circulation.
Gold and silver are worth 5—6 per cent, more than paper;
those, therefore, who make a payment in gold are entitled to
decline receiving banknotes in exchange, unless the difference in
value be taken into account. The traveller who changes gold
for banknotes at a money-changer's should take care to stipulate
for notes of convenient value and of the bank of the district
he intends visiting. The purses employed in most other countries
are of course unsuitable for carrying large bundles of notes;
one of those adapted for the purpose may be purchased in
Italy for li/2—2 fr., in addition to which a strong pouch for
copper will be found serviceable.
In some parts of Italy the former currency is still employed
in keeping accounts, and the coins themselves are occasionally
seen : e.g. the francesconi and crazie of Tuscany, the scudi