372 Route 53. FLORENCE. History.
the Renaissance, the object of which was to revive the poetry, the elo
quence, and the art and science of antiquity. Contemporaneously with the
most eminent artists the brilliant court of the Medici was graced by the
earliest of modern philologists. The conspiracy of the Pazzi (1478), to which
Lorenzo's brother Giuliano fell a victim, did not avail to undermine the
power of this ruler, but brought the bloody revenge of the people on
his opponents. Lorenzo knew both how to defend himself against ex¬
ternal dangers by prudent alliances (with Venice and Milan), and to se¬
cure his position at home by lavish expenditure and a magnificent style
of living, which, however, was partly maintained by the public treasury.
He died at Careggi on Ap. 8th, 1492, at the age of 43 years, an absolute
prince in all but the name.
Scarcely nine months after his death the Florentine love of liberty
expelled his feeble son Piero, with his brothers Giovanni and Giuliano.
In 1494 Charles VIII. of France occupied Florence on his campaign
against Naples. On the king's departure Hieronymus Savonarola, the
celebrated prior of S. Marco, founded his theocratic republic at Florence,
but his career was terminated in 1498 by his death at the stake. The re¬
public maintained its freedom under the Gonfaloniere Pietro Soderini till
1512, but in that year the party of the Medici regained the upper hand
and recalled the brothers Giuliano and Giovanni. The former soon resigned
his authority, the latter became pope, and they were followed by Lorenzo,
son of Pietro II. and afterwards Duke of Urbino (d. 1519), Giulio, the son
of the Giuliano who was murdered in 1478 (elected pope in 1523), and
Alessandro, a natural son of the last-named Lorenzo. The family was
again banished in 1527, but Emp. Charles V., who had married his nat¬
ural daughter to Alessandro, attacked the town and took it in 1530 after
a siege of eleven months, during which Michael Angelo, as engineer on
the side of the republic, and the brave partisan Ferruccio greatly distin¬
guished themselves. The emperor then appointed Alessandro hereditary
sovereign of Florence. The assassination of the latter, perpetrated by his
own cousin Lorenzo, 7th Jan., 1537, did not conduce to the re-establishment
of the republic. He was succeeded by Cosimo I. (1536-64), who entirely
suppressed all political liberty in the city, but to some extent revived the
Genealogy of the Medici.
Giovanni d'Averardo, 1360-1429.
m. Piccarda Bueri.
„ ---------,______________________________________^--------------------------------------------- s
(1.) Cosimo, Pater Patriae, 1389-1464. (2.) Lorenzo, 1395-1440.
m. Contessina de' Bardi, i. 1473. m. Ginevra Cavalcanti;
progenitors of the later grand-
(1.) Piero, 1416-69. (2.) Giovanni, d. 1463. (3.) Carlo (natural son),
m. Lucrezia Tornabuoni, d. 1482. d. 1492.
(1.) Lorenzo il Magnifico, 1449-92. (2.) Giuliano, 1453-78, whose (3.) Bianca.
m. Clarice Orsini, d. 1488. son Giulio (1478-1534) (4.) Nannina.
became pope as Cle- (5.) Maria.
ment VII. in 1523.
(1.) Piero, 1471- (2.) Giovanni (1475- (3.) Giuliano, 1479-1516, (4.) Lucrezia.
1503. 1521), who be- Due de Nemours,_ (5.) Luisa.
m. Alfonsina came pope as m. FiliberlaofSa- I (6.) Maddalena.
Orsini, d. 1520. Leo X. in 1513. voy. \ Cl.) Contessina.
ft.) Lorenzo, 1492-1519, Duke of (2.) Clarice. I Ippolito (natural son), "
Urbino. m. Madeleine de la I d. 1535 as Cardinal.
Tour dWuvergne, A. 1519. |
fl.) Caterina, Queen of France, (2.) Alessandro (natural son), first Duke
d. 1589. of Florence, d. 1537.