342 Route 51.
drive lfr. 60 c, first 72 hr. lfr. 40 c, each additional 72 hr. 80 c; at
night 20 c. more for each 72 hr. With two horses, one-third more.
Post Office (PI. 51) on the left bank of the river, below the Ponte di Mezzo.
Telegraph Office at the Prefecture, Lung-Arno Galilei, open from
7 a.m. till midnight.
Physicians. Dr. Ahrt, Dr. Hirschl, Dr. Fedeli, Dr. Feroci.
Booksellers. Hoepli, Lung-Arno Regio 9; Ubelhart, Lung-Arno Regio 5.
Photographers. Huguet & Van Lint, Piazza dei Cavalieri (also sculp¬
tures in marble).
Baths. Bagni Ceccherini, Lung-Arno, N. side; Bagni Lombard, Via
Manzoni 11, new.
Theatres. Regio Teatro Nuovo, good operas, prices very moderate.
English Church Service in winter and spring.
The Stanze Civiche, to which strangers may be introduced, contain
Italian and French newspapers. Balls and concerts in winter.
Climate. Pisa is partly sheltered on the E. and N.E. by the Monti
Pisani (p. 351) , while the lofty town-wall also affords no inconsiderable
protection from the wind. The mean winter temperature is about 472°
lower than that of the Riviera, and the usual daily range of temperature
is much less. This equability is due in great measure to the humidity
of the atmosphere occasioned by the proximity of the sea, the broad river,
and other causes. Pisa has also been known from ancient times for its
abundance of rain, there being here on an average 73 days of rain,
and one of snow between Oct. and April. Pisa is a well-known wintering-
place for patients suffering from asthma, pneumonia, pleurisy, and other
pulmonary complaints, but should be avoided by those who have much
mucous discharge, as well as by rheumatic and gouty subjects. The best
apartments are on the N. side of the Lung-Arno, that part of which
between the Ponte di Mezzo and the Ponte Solferino, called Lung-Arno
Regio, is the sunniest. The Lung-Arno Mediceo is less favourably situated.
The rents of furnished rooms are highest in October, after which they
gradually fall. The average rent of a single room is 172-3 fr. per day, but
many landlords decline to let their rooms except for the whole winter.
Living at an hotel is of course more expensive (pension 9-12 fr. per day),
but the visitor is more independent. The best situated hotels are the
Grand Hotel, the Victoria, and the Gran Bretagna. As the Lung-Arno is
the chief centre of society in winter, invalids are recommended not to
take rooms at a distance from it.
Pisa, a quiet town with 26,000 inhab. (commune 54,000),
the capital of a province, is situated 6 M. from the sea, on both
banks of the Arno. It was the Pisae of the ancients , and once lay
at the confluence of the Amus and Auser (Serchio), which last
has now an estuary of its own.
Pisa became a Roman colony in B.C. 180. Augustus gave it the name
of Colonia Julia Pisana, and Hadrian and Antoninus Pius erected temples,
theatres, and triumphal arches here. At that period the town must have
been a place of considerable importance, but all its ancient monuments,
with the exception of a few scanty relics (p. 351) have disappeared. At
the beginning of the 11th cent. Pisa attained the rank of one of the
greatest commercial and seafaring towns on the Mediterranean, and became
a rival of Venice and Genoa. It was chiefly indebted for its power to the
zeal with which it took the lead in the wars against the Infidels. In
1025 the Pisans expelled the Saracens from Sardinia and took permanent
possession of the island. In 1030 and 1089 they again defeated the Saracens
at Tunis, and in 1063 destroyed their fleet near Palermo. In 1114 they
conquered the Balearic Islands, and soon afterwards took a prominent
part in the Crusades. In the 12th and 13th centuries their power had
reached its zenith; their trade extended over the entire Mediterranean
and their supremacy embraced the Italian islands and the whole of the
coast from La Spezia to Civita Vecchia. In the intestine wars of the
peninsula Pisa was the most powerful adherent of the Ghibellincs and