330 Route 48. RAVENNA. S. Apollin. Nuovo.
S. Spirito (PL 23), or £. Teodoro, erected by Theodoric for the
Avian bishops, witb a vestibule at the W. entrance (portal, 16th
cent.), and adorned with fourteen columns of coloured marble in
the interior. The sacristan also keeps the key of the adjacent —
*S. Maria in Cosmedin (PL 22), once an Arian baptistery.
The octagonal dome was adorned with *Mosaics in the 6th cent.,
when it became a Rom. Cath. church. On the dome the Baptism of
Christ, on the left, the river-god of the Jordan, surrounded by the
twelve Apostles. The walls are covered with half-obliterated fres¬
coes of last century. The present pavement is about 7 ft. above the
original level. Several Arian crosses are built into the walls of the
entrance court on the left side.
S. GiovanniEvangelista, or S. Giovanni della Sagra(P\. 4, F, 4;
if closed, knock at the door), near the railway-station, erected in 444
by the Empress Galla Placidia in consequence of a vow made dur¬
ing a voyage from Constantinople, has also lost its ancient mosaics,
and much of its interest owing to alterations. Above the *Portal,
constructed at the end of the 13th or beginning of 14th cent., are
reliefs in allusion to the foundation of the church. Recent exca¬
vations have shown that the court in front of the church once
formed the atrium of the edifice.
The Interior, with its unpleasing barrel-vaulting, consists of nave
and aisles borne by twenty-four antique columns. The vaulting of the 4th
chapel is adorned with frescoes of the four Evangelists, with their symbols
above them, and the four fathers of the church, SS. Gregory, Ambrose,
Augustine, and Jerome, by Giotto (who had come to Ravenna on a visit
to his friend Dante). In the closed chapel to the left of the choir are
some remains of old Mosaic Pavement, representing the storm to which
Galla Placidia was exposed, on the left, and figures of animals on the right.
*S. Apollinare Nuovo (PL 3; E, 4, 5), a basilica erected about
500 by Theodoric the Great as an Arian cathedral (S. Martinus in
Coelo aureo), was afterwards converted (570) by the Archbishop S.
Agnello into a Roman Catholic church. It has borne its present
name since the 9th cent., when the relics of the saint were trans¬
ferred hither from Classe. The atrium and apse have been removed
in the course of later alterations, but the nave still affords the rare
spectacle of a well-preserved interior decoration of the early-Chris¬
tian period. The ceiling alone has been altered.
The Interior contains twenty-four marble columns brought from
Constantinople. On the right is an ancient ambo. The walls of the nave
are adorned with interesting "'Mosaics of the 6th cent., partly of the Arian,
and partly of the Rom. Cath. period, with additions of the 9th cent.,
afterwards frequently restored: on the left the town of Classis with the
sea and ships, twenty-two virgins with the Magi (the upper half ar¬
bitrarily restored in 1846); on the right is the city of Ravenna with the
church of S. Vitalis and the palace of Theodoric, and twenty-five saints
with wreaths approaching Christ enthroned between angels (a group
which has also been freely restored). These last mosaics betray a ten¬
dency to the showy style of the later period, but the single figures of the
teachers o> the church above them, between the windows, are executed
in a more independent and pleasing manner. Above the windows, on the
upper part of the wall, on each side are thirteen interesting compositions
from the New Testament. On ilie le'i. t'tae Bavins ?;■■'*' r:;;"?>"les of Christ