to Modena. MANTUA. 36. Route. 211
of his characters, he rrvais the best of his contemporaries, while he sur¬
passes them in accuracy of perspective, and in his refined taste for beauty
of landscape. He died at Mantua in 1506. When Raphael's pupils were
dispersed after his death, Giulio Romano (1492-1546), the most eminent of
them, established himself at Mantua, where he attained so high a reputa¬
tion as an architect and painter, that Mantua has been called the 'town
of Giulio Romano1. In imitation of Raphael's work in the Farnesina, he
here composed mythological decorative paintings, which, though far in¬
ferior to their prototype, are attractive from the richness of the motives
and the sensuous magnificence of the composition, and are important ow¬
ing to the influence which they exercised on later art. Primaiiccio, and
Niccolb delV Abbate, pupils of Giulio Romano who were educated here,
were afterwards summoned to Fontainebleau, and thus formed a connect¬
ing link between the French and the Italian Renaissance. Giulio Romano's
works must also have exercised no slight influence on the style of Rubens,
who spent several years at Mantua.
The traffic of the town is chiefly confined to the arcades of the
Contrada Croce Verde (PI C, 4) and the Piazza delle Erbe (PI. D, 4),
near S. Andrea. Beyond the latter, in a small piazza in front of the
Camera di Commercio (PL 3), is a Statue of Dante, erected in 1870.
A little farther on is the Piazza S. Pietro (PL D, 3), in the
centre of which rises a monument to the political martyrs of the
year 1851. Here are situated the Cathedral, the Palazzo Vescovile
(PL 12), and, on the right, the former palace of the Gonzagas.
The Cathedral of S. Pietro (PL e), a church with double aisles,
and a transept covered with a dome, and flanked with two rows of
chapels, possesses an unpleasing modern facade and a huge un¬
finished tower of much earlier origin. The interior was skilfully
remodelled from designs by Giulio Romano. The nave has a fine
fretted ceiling. On the left of the passage leading to the *Cappella
dell' Incoronata is a bust of Ant. Capriano, 1574.
The N.E. angle of the piazza is occupied by the old ducal palace
of the Gonzagas, now called the *Corte Reale (PL 5) , and partly
used as barracks. The building was begun in 1302 by Guido Buo-
nacolsi, and was afterwards altered and embellished with frescoes
by Giulio Romano by order of Federigo II.
The custodian's room (second large gate on the right), the Uffizio
della Scalcheria , is adorned with hunting-scenes by pupils of Giulio
Romano, but the Diana over the chimney-piece is by himself (d. 1546).
— On the Upper Floor is a large saloon containing portraits of the Gon¬
zagas by Bibbiena. Then the Stanze dell' Imperatrice, a suite of apart¬
ments in which Raphael's tapestry, now at Vienna, was formerly preserved.
The Dining-Room is adorned with allegorical figures of the rivers and
lakes around Mantua; the windows look into a garden on the same level.
The *Sala dello Zodiaco, with allegorical and mythological representations
of the signs of the zodiac by Giulio Romano (Napoleon I. once slept in this
room); then three Stanze dell' Imperatore, containing copies of the
tapestry formerly here, painted on the walls by Canepi. The Picture
Gallery contains nothing worthy of note; to the left, by the door, a good
bust of a Gonzaga by Bernini. The Ball Room (Sala degli Specchi) is
embellished with frescoes by the pupils of Giulio Romano. — In another
part of the palace is the charming Camerino CParadiso') of the celebrated
Isabella Gonzaga of Este; in an adjoining room her motto, '■nee spe nee
metu'. We next pass through a series of handsomely decorated rooms in
the most varied styles, the most remarkable of which are the Saletta dei
Marmi, Camera di Giove, the Appartamento and Sala di Troja, with