Palazzo Madama. TURIN.
9. Route. 63
(Isole), long, broad, straight streets (formerly called Contrade, now Vie),
wide squares, and numerous gardens. Its history explains this. The
plan of the old town, with slight variations, is ascertained to be the same
as that of the colony founded by the Emperor Augustus. It formed a rec¬
tangle of 1370 ft. in length, and 2210 ft. in breadth, and is now inter¬
sected by the Via di Dora Grossa, which runs between the Piazza Castello
and the Via della Consolata. It had four principal gates, of which the
Porta Palalina, to the N. (in the Palazzo delle Torri, PL 44) still exists.
The whole town was comprised within this circumference during the middle
ages, until in the 17th cent., under the princes of Savoy, a systematic
extension of the city was begun in accordance with the original plan.
The fortifications constructed by Francis I. in 1536, and finally the siege
of 1706 cleared away most of the old buildings, and gave the town its
present appearance. The fortifications were demolished by the French
when in possession of the city and environs in 1801, and the citadel had
to give place to the railway in 1857.
The spacious Piazza Castello (PI. E, F, 2), with the Royal
Palace, forms the centre of the town. From this point the busiest
streets diverge: — the Via Roma, the Via di Dora Grossa (or Via
Garibaldi), and the broad and handsome Via di Po, leading to the
bridge over the Po, and flanked by arcades (Portici), containing
shops, the handsomest of which are near the Piazza Castello (those
in the direction of the Po, towards the Piazza Vittorio Emmanuele,
being inferior). These arcades present a busy and brilliant scene
in the evening, when lighted by gas. The University in the Via
di Po, see p. 70. — In the S.E. angle of the Piazza Castello is the
new Galleria dell' Industria Subalpina, containing cafes, a large
birraria, and concert rooms, which deserves a visit, though inferior
to the arcade at Milan. The other end of the arcade is in the Piazza
Carlo Alberto (p. 65).
The Palazzo Madama (PL 39; E, 2), the ancient castle, a lofty
and cumbrous pile in the centre of the Piazza Castello , is the only
mediaeval structure of which Turin boasts, and was erected by
William of Monferrat, when master of the town in the latter half of
the 13th century. It owes its present name to the mother of King
Victor Amadeus II., who as Dowager Duchess (lMadama ReaW)
occupied the building, and embellished it in 1718 by the addition
of a handsome double flight of steps and the facade with marble
columns on the W. side, from a design by Juvara. The two original
tqjvers on the E. side are still standing; two others on the W. side,
one of which contains an observatory, are concealed by the facade.
Down to 1865 the Palazzo Madama was the seat of the Italian sen¬
ate, and it now contains several institutions. — In front of the
Palace stands a Monument to the Sardinian Army (PL 24) by Vine.
Vela, erected by the Milanese in 1859.
On the N. side of the Piazza Castello is situated the Palazzo
Reale, or Royal Palace (PL 43; E, 2), begun in 1660, a plain edi¬
fice of brick, sumptuously fitted up in the interior. The palace-
yard is separated from the Piazza by a gate, the pillars of which are
decorated with two groups in bronze of Castor and Pollux, designed
by Abbondio Sangiorgio in 1842. To the left in the hall of the