1. The Superga..............
2. From Turin to Torre Pellice by Pignerol . . .
From Turin to Aosta ............
From Turin to Milan by Novara........
1. From Santhia to Biella..........
3. From Novara to Gozzano .........
From Arona to Genoa............
From Milan to Vigevano and Mortara (Genoa) . . .
From Turin to Genoa.............
b. Via Bra and Savona ...........
3. From Carrii to Mondovi. Certosa di Val Pesio. .
This district 'at the foot of the mountains'1, encl >sed on three sides
by the Alps and Apennines, and separated from Lombardy by the Ticino,
embraces, according to the present division, the provinces of Turin, No¬
vara, Cuneo, and Alessandria, with 3,107,026 inhab., and an area of about
11,400 sq. M. It consists of lowlands flanking the banks of the Po and
its tributaries, which yield rice and maize, and of highlands where ex¬
cellent wine and silk are produced, and lastly of a bleaker mountain
region of forests and pastures. The earliest Inhabitants were Celtic and
Ligurian tribes, who were but slowly influenced by Roman culture; and
it was not till the reign of Augustus that the subjugation of the higher
valleys was completed. The Dialect of the people still retains traces of
their ancient affinity with the French; thus, pieuve, instead of the Italian
piovere, om for uomo, coeur for cuore, sita for citld, rason for ragione,
plassa for piazza. This patois is universally spoken, even by the higher
classes, and is unintelligible to strangers. Throughout Piedmont the
traveller will find that French will carry him quite as far as Italian.
The History of the country is closely interwoven with that of its
dynasty. The House of Savoy (or Casa Sabauda), a family of German
origin, professing even to trace their descent from the Saxon Duke
Wittekind, the opponent of Charlemagne, first became conspicuous among
the nobles of Upper Burgundy about the year 1000. Humbert I. (d. about
1050) is generally regarded as the founder of the dynasty. In 1101 his
descendants were created imperial counts of Savoy by Henry IV., and by
judiciously espousing the cause of the pope and the emperor alternately,
they gradually succeeded in extending their supremacy over Turin, Aosta,
Susa, Ivrea, and Nice. In consequence of a law passed by Amadeus V.,
the Great, in 1367, which settled the succession on the male line in the order
of primogeniture, and co-nstituted Chambe'ry the seat of government, the
subdivisions of the country were at length united. In 1416, during the
reign of Amadeus VIII., the counts became Dukes of Savoy. Situated
between the two great mediaeval powers of France on one side, and
Austria and Spain on the other, the princes of Savoy frequently changed