to Colico. S. BERNARDINO. 5. Route. 41
3872 M. Hinterrhein (5302 ft.; Post), the highest village in the valley.
The source of the Hinler-Rhein (7270ft.), which issues from the Rheinwald
or Zapport Glacier, may be reached hence in 37* hrs. The road crosses the
Rhine, about 72 M. beyond the village, and then winds up the steep S.
slope of the valley, finally leading through a bleak upland glen to the
S. Bernardino Pass (6768 ft.), which was known to the Romans, and was
called the Vogelberg down to the 15th century. When S. Bernardino of Siena
preached the gospel at that period in this region, a chapel was erected
on the S. slope and gave its name to the pass. The small Lago Moesola
(2 hrs. from Hinter-Rhein) lies on the summit of the pass (Inn). From
the S. end of the lake issues the Moesa, which the road follows down to
its confluence with the-Ticino above Bellinzona. The new road descends
in windings, crossing lower down to the right bank of the Moesa.
4972 M. S. Bernardino (5335 ft.; "Hotel Brocco; Ravizza; Desteffanis),
4 M. from the summit of the pass, the highest village in the Val Mesocco,
or Mesolcina. Several waterfalls are observed. Near S. Giacomo the road
again crosses the river, and then descends rapidly to —
58 M. Mesocco, or Cremeo (2559 ft.; Toscani; "Desteffanis), a charming¬
ly situated village, where walnut-trees, chestnuts, vines, and maize-
fields begin to indicate the Italian nature of the climate. On a rocky
eminence to the left of the road, 72 M. below Mesocco, stand the im¬
posing ruins of the Chdteau of Mesocco with its four towers, which was
destroyed by the inhabitants of the Grisons in 1526. Beyond (2 M.)
Soazza (2067 ft.) the bottom of the valley is reached, and the road becomes
level. Near the second bridge below Soazza the Buffalora forms a fine
cascade near the road. Near Cabbiolo is another waterfall.
68 M. Cama (1260ft.). The next villages are Leggia and Grono, the
latter at the entrance to the Val Calanca.
71 M. Roveredo (974 ft.; "Angelo; Croce), the capital of the lower
Val Mesocco, with the ruined castle of the Trivulzio family.
S. Vittore (882ft.) is the last village in the Grisons, Lumino the first
in the Canton Ticino. On this side the bridge over the Moesa the road
unites with the St. Gotthard route (p. 35). Below the confluence of the
Moesa and the Ticino lies Arbedo, where a battle was fought in 1422 be¬
tween the Milanese and the Swiss, in which 2000 of the latter fell.
7672 M. Bellinzona, a station on the St. Gotthard Railway, see p. 35.
6. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner.
166 M. Railway in 9-12 hrs.; express fares 39 fr. 55, 29 fr. 30 c.; ordi¬
nary 33 fr. 50, 24 fr. 95, 16 fr. 80 c Views on the right as far as the
summit of the Brenner. Information as to through-tickets, which are
paid for in Italian money, see Introd. vii.
The Brenner, the lowest pass over the principal chain of the Alps, is
traversed by the oldest of the Alpine routes, which was used as early as
the Roman period, and rendered practicable for carriages in 1772. The
railway, opened in 1867, one of the grandest modern works of the kind,
affords the most direct communication between S. E. Germany and Italy.
Within a distance of 78 M. the line is carried through 22 tunnels, and
over 60 large and a number of smaller bridges. The greatest incline,
1:40, is between Innsbruck and the culminating point.
Innsbruck (1912 ft.; *Tiroler Hof; *Europdischer Hof, both
near the station; Goldene Sonne, Goldener Adler, in the town;
Hirsch, second-class), see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. The train
passes the Abbey of Wilten (on the right) and penetrates the hill
of Isel by a tunnel 750 yds. in length. It then passes through an¬
other tunnel, and crosses to the right bank of the Sill, on which it
ascends. On the S. rises the Waldraster-Spitze (8907 ft.). Five
tunnels. Beyond (5 M.) Patsch (2550 ft.), the valley becomes
narrower and wilder. Four more tunnels. The Sill is crossed twice.