to Nice. MARSEILLES. /. Route. 19
but still adhered to its ancient privileges, as was especially evident in
the wars of the Ligue, against Henry IV. In 1660 Louis XIV. divested the
town of its privileges, so that it retained its importance as a sea-port only.
In 1720 and 1721 it was devastated by a fearful pestilence. During the
revolution it remained unshaken in its allegiance to royalty and was there-
.fore severely punished. In 1792 hordes of galley-slaves were sent hence
to Paris, where they committed frightful excesses. It was for them that
Rouget de VIsle, an officer of engineers, composed the celebrated Marseil¬
laise, 'Allons, enfants de la patrie', which subsequently became the battle-
hymn of the republican armies.
The docks and quays (comp. plan) are very extensive. The
harbour has been quadrupled in size since 1850, notwithstanding
which there is still a demand for increased accommodation. In 1853
the Port de la Joliette was added to the Ancien Port, and is now
the starting-point of most of the steamboats. The Bassin des Docks
and d'Arenc were added next, in 1856 the Bassin Napoleon (now
National), and in 1872 the Bassins de Radoub. Other extensions
are projected. — The old harbour is long and narrow. Its entrance
is defended by the forts of St. Jean and St. Nicolas. Near the
former is the Consigne (PI. 6; D, 5; adm. 50 c), or office of the
'Intendance Sanitaire' (quarantine authorities).
The principal hall contains several good pictures: Horace Vernet, The
cholera on board the frigate Melpomene; David, St. Rochus praying to
the Virgin for the plague-stricken, painted in Rome, 1780; Puget, The
plague at Milan, a relief in marble; Girard, Bishop Belsunce during the
plague of 1(20 (see below); Tanneurs, The frigate Justine returning from
the East with the plague on board; Guirin, The Chevalier Rose directing
the sepulture of those who have died of the plague.
A few paces farther N. is the Cathedral (PI. C, D, 5), a new
edifice constructed of alternate courses of black and white stone, in
a mixed Byzantine and Romanesque style, from the designs of
Vaudoyer and Esperandieu. The towers are surmounted by domes.
The terrace commands a pleasant survey of the Bassin de la Joli¬
ette. — To the E., in front of the old harbour, is the former 'Resi¬
dence Imperiale', now Chateau du Pharo, a hospital (PI. E, 5). In
the vicinity are the sea-baths (p. 18).
*La Cannebiere (PI. D, 3), a broad and very handsome street,
intersects the town from W. to E. , from the extremity of the
Ancien Port to the centre of the town where the ground rises. In
this street, a few paces from the harbour, stands the Bourse (PI. 5),
with a portico of Corinthian columns, erected 1854-60.
A short distance further the Cours (PL C, D, 3) is reached on
the left, a shady promenade generally thronged with foot-pass¬
engers, at the S. end of which stands the statue of Bishop Belsunce,
who during the appalling plague in 1720, which cairied off 40,000
persons, alone maintained his post and faithfully perfoimed the
solemn duties of his calling. — Fiom this point the Rue d'Aix
ascends to the Arc de Triomphe (PI. 1 ; C, 3), erected in 1823, and
afterwards adorned with representations of Napoleonic batties in
relief by Ramey and David d'Angers.
We now return to the Cannebiere. Opposite the Cours opens