RESTAURANTS AND CAFES.
their climate. The traveller in N. Italy wfll rarely suffer from-this short¬
coming even in hotels of the second class; but those who quit the beaten
track must be prepared for privations. Iron bedsteads should if possible be
selected, as they are less likely to harbour the enemies of repose. Insect-
powder (polvere di Persia, or Keating'sJ or camphor somewhat repels their
advances. The zanzare, or gnats, are a source of great annoyance, and
often of suffering, during the autumn months. Windows should always
be carefully closed before a light is introduced into the room. Light
muslin curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds, masks for the face, and
gloves are employed to ward of the attacks of these pertinacious in¬
truders. The burning of insect powder over a spirit lamp is also recom¬
mended, and pastilles may be purchased at the principal chemists1 for the
same purpose (see p. 199). A weak solution of carbolic acid in water is
efficacious in allaying the discomforts occasioned by the bites.
A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing
(la biancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman: Shirt
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camicia (di tela, di cotone, di lana); collar,
il solino, il colletto; cuff, il polsino; drawers, le mutande; woollen under¬
shirt, una flanella or giubetta di flanella; petticoat, la sottana; stocking,
la calza; sock, la calzetta; handkerchief (silk), il fazoletto (di seta). To give
out to wash, dare a bucato (di bucato, newly washed); washing list, la nota;
washerwoman, laundress, la stiratrice, la lavandaja; buttons, i bottoni.
IX. Restaurants, Cafes, Osterie.
Restaurants of the first class (Ristoranti) in the larger towns
resemble those of France or Germany, and have similarly high
charges. — The more strictly national Trattorie are chiefly fre¬
quented by Italians and gentlemen travelling alone, but those of
the better class may be visited by ladies also. They are generally
open from 11 till comparatively early in the evening, but are fre¬
quented chiefly between 5 and 8. Breakfast or a light luncheon
before 1 o'cl. may be more conveniently obtained at a cafe (p. xx,l.
Dinner may be obtained alia carta for l1/^"^ fr., and sometimes
a prezzo fisso for 2-5 fr. The waiters expect a gratuity of 2-5 soldi.
The diner who wishes to confine his expenses within reasonable
limits should refrain from ordering dishes not mentioned in the bill
Of fare. The waiter is called cameriere (or bottega), but the approved
way of attracting his attention is by knocking on the table. If too
importunate in his recommendations or suggestions he may be
checked with the word lbasta\ The diner calls for his bill with
the words lil conto\
List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants.
Antipa&ti, relishes taken as whets.
Minestra or Zuppa, soup.
Brodo or Consume, broth or bouillon.
Zuppa alia Sante, soup with green
vegetables and bread.
Gnocchi, small puddings.
Minestra di riso con piselli, rice-soup
Risotto (alia Milanese), a kind of rice
Paste asciutte, maccaroni, al sugo e
t* al burro, with sauce and butter;
vjjal pomidoro, with^tomatoes.
Salami, sausage (usually with garlic,
Polio, or pollastro, fowl.
Potaggio di polio, chicken-fricassee.
Gontorno, Guamizione, garnishing,
vegetables, usually not charged for.
Asparagi, asparagus. ._j