sirocco studiously avoided. The height of summer is totally un¬
suitable for tours of this kind.
A horse (cavallo) or donkey (sommaro ; Neapol. ciucio; Sicil.
vettura, applied to both animals), between which the difference of
expense is trifling, often affords a pleasant and cheap mode of tra¬
velling, especially in mountainous districts, where the attendant
(pedone) also acts as a servant for the time being. A bargain should
be made previously, tutto compreso, a gratuity being added if the
traveller is satisfied.
The popular idea of cleanliness in Southern Italy is behind the
age, dirt being perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives
by the brilliancy of their climate. The traveller will rarely suffer
from this shortcoming in hotels and lodgings of the best class; but
those who quit the beaten track must be prepared for privations.
In village houses the pig (animate nero) is a privileged inmate,
and the poultry are freely admitted. Iron bedsteads should if pos¬
sible be selected, as being less infested by the enemies of repose.
Insect-powder (joolvere di Persia; better procured before leaving
home) or camphor should be plentifully sprinkled on the beds
and on the traveller's clothing in places of doubtful cleanliness.
The zanzare, or mosqviitoes, are a source of great annoyance, and
even of suffering, in summer and autumn. Windows should always
be carefully closed before a light is introduced into the room.
Light muslin curtains (zanzariera) round the beds, masks for the
face, and gloves are used to ward of the tacks of these pertinacious
At Naples and in the environs, at Brindisi, Palermo, Messina,
and Catania there are good hotels of the first class, the landlords
of which are often Swiss or Germans. Rooms 2i/2-5 fr., bougie
75 c.-1 fr., attendance 1 fr., table d'hote 4-6 fr., and so on.
Families, for whose reception the hotels are often specially fitted
up, should make an agreement with regard to pension (8-12 fr.
per day for each person). Strangers are expected to dine at the
table d'hote; otherwise they are charged more for their rooms,
or are informed that they are engaged by other travellers. French
is spoken everywhere. Cuisine a mixture of French and Italian.
The second-class inns, as in Northern and Central Italy, gener¬
ally have a trattoria in connection with the house. Room 11/2-3,
light and attendance 1 fr. per day. Enquiry as to charges, however,
should always be made beforehand. An extortionate bill may even
be reduced though no previous agreement has been made, but this
is never effected without long and vehement discussions.
Attendance, exclusive of boots and commissionaire, is usually charged
in the bill at the best hotels. In the smaller inns it is generally included
in the charge for rooms; but if not, 1 fr. per 'lay may be divided between
the waiter and the facchino, or less for a prolonged stay. Copper coins
are never despised by such recipients.