ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 271
doors, presented by Hilarius, are said to originate from the Thermse of
Caracalla. — On the left, opposite this oratory, is the Oratory of St.
John , with bronze doors of the year 1196, and adorned with Mosaics (5th
cent.) representing birds and flowers on a golden ground. The statue
of the saint, between two columns of alabaster, is by Landini (d. 1594).—
The door in the centre leads into what was formerly the Portico (Porti-
cus S. Venantii), as the chief entrance was originally from the court. In
1154 the portico was converted into two chapels. The apse to the left is
enriched with handsome Mosaic of the 5th cent., consisting of gold ara¬
besques on a blue ground. Over the door to the Baptistery is a Cruci¬
fixion, a relief in marble, of 1494. — A fourth door in the Baptistery is
the entrance to the Oratorio di S. Venanzio, with ancient mosaics of the
middle of the 7th cent.'
Adjoining the church of S. Giovanni in Laterano, on the N.
side, is the —
Palazzo del Laterano (PL II, 30), to which, together with the
Vatican (p. 288) and Castel Gandolfo, the privilege of exterritori¬
ality was secured by a law of 13th May, 1871. This was the residence
of the popes from the time of Constantine down to the migration to
Avignon. The old palace was much more extensive than the present,
and included also the Sancta Sanctorum Chapel (p. 268). After a
great fire in 1308 it lay in ruins, which were removed by order of
Sixtus V. and the newpalace erected by Domenico Fontana in 1586.
As it remained unoccupied, it was converted by Innocent XII. into
an orphan asylum in 1693. In 1843 Gregory XVI. set apart the
palace for a collection of the heathen and Christian antiquities for
which the Vatican and Capitoline museums no longer afforded space,
and named it the 'Museum Gregorianum Lateranense, a collection
which has since then steadily increased in importance. Visitors
admitted daily, except on holidays, 9-3 o'clock. The entrance
is by ihe portal in the piazza opposite the obelisk (p. 267); visitors
ring on the right in the passage. Compare ground-plan.
On the ground-floor is the so-called *Museo Pbofano, a collection
of ancient sculptures , including several admirable works. There
are neither catalogues nor numbers, but the custodian (3/4-l fr.)
is well informed. A scientific German catalogue was published by
Benndorf and Schone at Leipsic in 1867.
We begin on the right, under the arcades of the entrance-wing.
I. Room. Entrance-wall: relief of the Abduction of Helen; tomb-relief
(warrior's farewell); priest of the oracle of Dodona (fountain-relief). Left
wall: two pugilists, named Dares and Entellus (in relief); bust of Marcus
Aurelius; Trajan (head restored by Thorvaldsen) accompanied by senators
(relief from Trajan's Forum); in front of the latter a statuette of Nemesis;
Nymph suckling a child, perhaps the infant Pan, in relief. Right wall:
sarcophagus-reliefs of Mars and Rhea Silvia (the latter being a likeness of
the deceased woman); Diana and Endymion; Adonis; Diana and Endymion.
In the centre a mosaic with pugilists, from the Thermae of Caracalla (see 1st
floor, p. 274). — II. Room: interesting architectural fragments, especially
from the Forum of Trajan. Fragments of a 'frieze in the centre of the
walls of the entrance, the egress, and that on the right merit inspection.
— III. Room: hy the entrance-wall a statue of .Esculapius. Right wall:
"Antinous (head new), found at Ostia. Wall of egress: child's sarcophagus
with scenes of pugilism. In the window several handsome feet of tables.
— IV. Room : on the entrance-wall, Medea with the daughters of Peleus, a