Lateran. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 267
Ospizio di Orfanc), dedicated to SS. Severus, Severianus, Carpo-
phorus, and Victorinus, who suffered martyrdom under Diocletian.
Five sculptors, who met with a similar fate for refusing to make
images of heathen gods, are also revered here, and this is accord¬
ingly a favourite church with the 'scarpellini', or stone-masons, to
whom the chapel of S. Silvestro belongs. The date of the foun¬
dation is very remote, and the materials were probably partly ob¬
tained from some ancient structure. After its destruction hy Robert
Guiscard, it was rebuilt by Paschalis II. in 1111, restored under
Marlin V. by Card. Alph. Carillo, and afterwards partly modernised.
Keys in the anterior court, on the right (4/2 fr.).
The church now possesses two Entrance-Courts, a peculiarity owing
to the diminution of its size on one of the occasions when it was restored,
probably by Paschalis II. The church originally extended over the whole
of the second court, and its former breadth is indicated by the ancient
columns built into the walls of this court. The disproportionate size of
the tribune in the interior is thus accounted for. — On the right, under
the corridor in front of the entrance to the second court, is the Cap. di
S. Silvestro, consecrated under Innocent IV. in 1246, containing valuable,
though unattractive ancient paintings from the life of Constantine, in the
Byzantine style. — The Interior consists of nave and aisles with gal¬
leries. The tribune is decorated with tasteless frescoes by Giovanni da
S. Giovanni. Festival, 8th Nov.
The nunnery comprises an establishment for the education of orphans.
To the right, farther on in the Via S. Giovanni, is the Villa Cam-
pana, which formerly contained a valuable collection of antiquities,
now in Paris and St. Petersburg. We next enter the spacious and
Piazza di S. Giovanni in Laterano (PL II, 30), the buildings
in which were chiefly erected by Sixtus V. On the right is situated
a large Hospital for Women, accommodating about 600 patients, and
belonging to the obstetric department of the Sapienza. The Via
Merulana then diverges to the left to S. Maria Maggiore (seep. 181).
On the opposite side of the piazza is the baptistery of S. Giovanni
in Fonte (p. 270). Farther on is the church of S. Giovanni in
Laterano (p. 268), and before it the Lateran Palace with the mu¬
seum (see p. 271).
In the centre rises an Obelisk of red granite, originally erected
by King Thothmosis III. (B.C. 1599-60) in front of the temple
of the Sun at Thehes, and brought by Constantius to the Circus
Maximus in 357. In 1587 it was discovered there in three pieces,
and in 1588 was erected by Sixtus V. on its present site. This is
the largest obelisk in existence, heing 104 ft. in height, or with
the pedestal 153 ft., and about 600 tons in weight. Opposite the
N. side of the Palace of the Lateran, on the left, is the entrance-
gate to the Villa Massimo, see p. 274.
Facing us, on the extreme E. side of the piazza, is the edifice
containing the Scala Santa, a flight of twenty-eight marble steps
from the palace of Pilate at Jerusalem, which our Saviour is said