116 Prelim. Information. ROME. Popular Festivals.
wards midnight, solemnities in Aracceli, about 3 a. m. in S.
Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 25).
Dec. 25. Christmas Day. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a. m.; eleva¬
tion of the host announced by trumpets in the dome.
— 26. St. Stephen's Day. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m.
— 27. St. John the Evangelist. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m.
— 31. Cappella Papale in the Sistine; after which, about 4 p. m.,
grand Te Deum in Gesii (PI. II, 16).
Popular Festivals (which have lost much of their former interest): —
Epiphany (6th Jan.), celebrated in the evening in the Piazza Navona,
since 1873 (formerly near S. Eustachio), array of booths and prodigious din
The Carnival, which has of late regained a little of its former splen¬
dour, extends from the second Saturday before Ash-Wednesday to Shrove-
Tuesday, and consists in a daily procession in the Corso, accompanied hy
the throwing of bouquets and comfits, excepting on Sundays and Fri¬
days, when a 'gala corso' generally takes place, and concluding with a horse¬
race. The last evening is the Moccoli (taper) evening, the tapers being
lighted immediately after sunset. A window in the Corso is the best point
of view. The most animated scene is between the Piazza Colonna and S.
Carlo. Balconies there are in great request and dear (as high as 600 fr.);
single places are let on the balconies fitted up for the occasion.
The October Festival, once famous, but now comparatively insigni¬
ficant, takes place during the vintage-season, and consists in singing, dan¬
cing, and carousals at the osterie outside the gates (e. g. on the 'Testaccio).
The Festa dello Statuto, or Festival of the Constitution, introduced
in consequence of the annexation of Rome, takes place on the first Sunday
in June. In the forenoon a military parade is held in the Campo di
Maccao (p. 177). In the evening a Girandola, i. e. an illumination and ex¬
hibition of fire-works at the Castello di S. Angelo. — On the anniversary
of the Foundation of Rome (21st April), it has of late been usual to illu¬
minate the Colosseum and the Forum with Bengal fire.
The opening of Parliament is also inaugurated with festivities.
Street Scenes. The top of the Scala di Spagna (PI. I, 20) and the
Via Sistina are the favourite haunts of artists' models, chiefly Neapolitans,
whose costumes are a well-known subject of photographs and pictures.
The Campagnoli, whose figures form one of the most singular appari¬
tions in the streets of Rome, are less frequently seen than formerly. They
pass a great part of their lives on horseback, while tending their herds of
oxen and horses. Their equipment usually consists of a low felt-hat, wide,
grey mantle, leathern leggings, and spurs: and they carry a 'pungolo', or
iron-pointed goad, for driving their cattle. The peasants of remote moun¬
tain-districts, wearing sandals (whence termed ciocciari), and with swathed
feet and ankles, also present a grotesque appearance. — The favourite haunts
of the country - people are in front of the Pantheon (PI. II, 16; especially
on Sundays), the Piazza Montanara (PI. II, 17) below the Capitol, and in
the market-place of the Campo de' Fiori (p. 204).
The Garrison of Rome consists of 2 regiments of Granatieri, or Gre¬
nadier Guards; 6 regiments of Infantry (with dark blue coats, grey trou¬
sers, white leather belts, and caps); 1 regiment of Bersaglieri or riflemen
(with dark blue coats and red facings, large plumed caps worn on one
side, forming an elite corps like the Austrian Kaiserjager); 1 regiment
of Cavalry (dark blue coats, and light grey trousers); 1 brigade of Field
Artillery (dark blue coats and yellow collars); and 1 brigade of Engi¬
neers. To these we may add the Carabinieri, or gensdarmes, who wear
black uniforms with red facings and cocked hats.