according to the amount of the payment, is sometimes inaccurate in chang¬
ing money if not narrowly watched.
The principal Parisian newspapers are to be found at all the larger
cafes, English rarely.
Wine Shops (osterle), especially at Rome, are a favourite haunt
of the lower classes, who bring their own eatables from the pizzi-
carolo, or dealer in comestibles. The rooms are generally dirty and
uninviting, but the wine is often good.
Cigars in Italy (Sicily excepted) are a monopoly of Government,
and bad; those under 3-4 soldi scarcely smokable. Good imported
cigars may be bought at the best shops in Rome for 25-60 c. —
Passers-by are at liberty to avail themselves of the light burning
in every tobacconist's, without making any purchase.
X. Sights, Shops, etc.
Churches are open in the morning till 12 or 12.30, and generally
again from 4 to 7 p.m. , while some of the most important remain
open the whole day. Visitors may inspect the works of art even
during divine service, provided they move about noiselessly, and
keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. On the
occasion of festivals the works of art are often entirely concealed
by the temporary decorations. The verger (sagrestano , or nonzolo)
receives a fee of J/2 fr. or upwards, if his services are required.
Museums, picture-galleries, and other collections are usually
open from 10 to 3 o'clock. By a law passed in 1875 all the col¬
lections which belong to government are open on week-days at a
charge of 1 fr., and on Sundays (and sometimes on Thursdays also)
gratis. They are closed on the following public holidays : New
Year's Day, Epiphany (6th Jan.), the Monday and Tuesday during
the Carnival, Palm Sunday, Easter Sunday, Ascension Day, Whit¬
sunday andWhitmonday, Fete de Dieu (Corpus Christi), the Festa
dello Statuto (first Sunday in June), Assumption of the Virgin
(15th Aug.), and on Christmas Day. A good many other days are
also sometimes observed as holidays, such as the Thursday before
the Carnival and the day sacred to the local patron saint.
Valets de Place (servitori di piazza) may be hired at 5-6 fr. per
day. They are generally respectable and trustworthy, but, as they
are seldom good judges of what is really worth seeing, the traveller
should specify to them the places he desires to visit. Their services
may generally well be dispensed with by those who are not pressed
for time. Purchases should never be made, nor contracts with vet-
turini or other persons drawn up, in presence or with the aid of a
commissionnaire, as any such intervention tends considerably to in¬
crease the i'rices.
Theatres. Performances in the large theatres begin at 8, 8.30
or 9, and terminate at midnight or later, operas and ballets being
exclusively performed. The first act of an opera is usually sue-