countries, while Southern Italy is unsafe in its more remote recesses
only. The 'Brigantaggid', strictly so called, is a local evil, which
may easily be avoided. In Tuscany, Umbria, the Marca , and in¬
deed in the whole of the districts to the N. of Rome, it is quite
unknown, and even the Roman Campagna can now scarcely be
looked on as less safe than lonely districts in the neighbourhood of
other large cities. For information as to the safety of the roads the
traveller should apply to the Carabinieri, or gensdarmes (who wear
a black uniform, with red facings and white shoulder-straps, and
cocked hats), a respectable and trustworthy corps, the strength of
which was raised in 1874 from 1900 to 3297 men. The traveller
should avoid the poorer and less frequented parts of Rome and
other towns after nightfall.
Weapons, which for the ordinary traveller are a mere burden,
cannot legally be carried without a license, obtainable through the
traveller's consul or ambassador. Those of a secret character, such
as sword-sticks and stick-guns, are entirely prohibited and are liable
Begging, which was countenanced and even encouraged under
the old system of Italian politics, still continues to be one of those
national nuisances to which the traveller must habituate himself.
The present government has adopted energetic measures for its sup¬
pression, but hitherto with only partial success. The average Italian
beggar is a mere speculator, and not a deserving object of charity.
The traveller should therefore decline to give anything, with the
words, 'non c'e niente', or a gesture of disapproval. If a donation
be bestowed, it should consist of one of the smallest possible copper
coins. A beggar, who on one occasion was presented with 2c. and
thanked the donor with the usual benedictions, was on another pre¬
sented with 50c; but this act of liberality, instead of being grate¬
fully accepted, only called forth the remark in a half-offended tone :
— 'Ma, signore, e molto poco!'
VI. Intercourse with Italians.
In Italy the pernicious custom of demanding considerably more
than will ultimately be accepted has long been prevalent; but
a knowledge of the custom, which is based on the presumed igno¬
rance of one of the contracting parties, tends greatly to mitigate the
evil. Where tariffs and fixed charges exist, they should be carefully
consulted. In other cases, where a certain average price is establish¬
ed by custom, the traveller should make a distinct bargain as to
the article to be bought or service to be rendered, and never rely on
the equity of the other party. Nor should any weight be attached to
the representations of waiters, drivers, and guides in matters in
which they have an interest, and with whom even the inhabitants
of the place often appear to act in concert.