RaphaeVs Loggie. ROME. IV. Right Bank. 291
4. Constantine's Address to his warriors regarding the vic-
torious omen of the cross, designed by Raphael (?), and executed
by 67. Romano, who added the dwarf (perhaps Gradasso Berettai of
Norcia, dwarf of Card. Hippolytus de' Medici) and several other
figures. — On the left, St. Peter between the Church and Eternity,
right Clement I. between Moderation and Urbanity. — The scenes
below are from the life of Constantine, designed by G. Romano.
The Ceiling, completed under Sixtus V., is adorned with an
allegory of the triumph' of Christianity over paganism. In the
pendentives are Italian landscapes, with corresponding allegorical
figures in the lunettes.
One of the custodians of this saloon (20-30 e.) shows the neigh¬
bouring * Cappella di Niccolò V., erected by Nicholas V. and deco¬
rated by Fra Angelico da Fiesole with frescoes from the lives of SS.
Lawrence and Stephen. They are the last and maturest works of that
master, executed about 1450-55, restored under Gregory XIII. and
The Upper Series represents scenes from the life of St. Stephen : 1. (to
the right of the window) Stephen consecrated deacon by Peter ; 2. He distri-
butes alms as deacon; *3. He preaches; 4. He is brought betore the coun¬
cil at Jerusalem; 5. He is dragged away to his martyrdom; 6. His death by
stoning. — Below, in the same order, scenes from the life of St. Lawrence : 1.
Consecrated deacon by Sixtus II. ; 2. Sixtus (with the features of Nicho¬
las V. ì) gives him treasures for distribution among the poor ; 3. Distribution
of the same ; 4. The saint is condemned by the emperor ; s5- He converts
his goaler; 6. His martyrdom. Also on the wall below : 1. St. Bonaventura,
r. St. Johannes Chrysostomus. In the vaulting : 1. St. Augustine, r. St. Gre¬
gory. On the lower part of the right wall : 1. St. Athanasius, r. St. Thomas
Aquinas. On the vaulting: 1. St. Leo, r. St. Ambrose. On the ceiling the
Four Evangelists. Though thus in immediate proximity to the boundless
energy of Michael Angelo and the lovely forms of Raphael, the frescoes
of Fra Angelico yet hold their ground in virtue of their air of perfect
devotion, cairn contemplative worship, and prayerful mood.
**Raphael's Loggie. Leaving the Sala di Costantino, we pro-
ceed to the second floor of the loggie which enclose the Cortile di
S. Damaso (comp. ground-plan, p. 294), the W. (right) wing of
which was embellished with stucco mouldings, painted enrichments,
and ceiling-paintings, from designs by Raphael and under his super-
intendence, by Giulio Romano, Giovanni da Udine, and others of his
pupils. The hall was originally open, and the paintings have there¬
fore suffered seriously from exposure to the air, but since 1813 they
have been protected by Windows of glass. The stucco work and the
painted ornamentation are by Giov. da Udine, and its style has mani-
festly been influenced by the antique works of the kind which had
been found a short time previously in the Thermae of Titus (p. 227).
(Giov. da Udine also decorated the rooms on the first floor, not
shown to visitors.) Amongst the ceiling-paintings after Raphael's
designs those in the first vault are by Giulio Romano, the others by
Frane. Penni, Perin del Vaga, Polidoro da Caravaggio, and others.
Each of the 13 sections of the vaulting contains four Biblical scenes
in quadrangular borders, which are together known as 'Raphael's