Romanum. ROME. IH. Southern Quarters. 217
The basement of the cella rises to a height of 22 ft., and was ap-
proached by a Flight of Steps (18 in number), with two lateral flights.
The building was mainly constructed of concrete, which was faced with
blocks of tufa, and around these were placed the blocks of travertine
which supported the enclosing colonnade. These blocks, however, as well
as the steps on the W. side, have entirely disappeared (although the im¬
pression made by them on the concrete is stili visible), and the width
of the building has thus been diminished by about one half. The three
columns on the E. side are among the finest of the kind now existing
(height 46 ft., diameter 5 ft.). The Corinthian capitals and the architrave
are both in a very superior style of workmanship. The tempie had eight
columns in front and probably thirteen on each side. Scanty remains
of the mosaic pavement of the Cella are stili to be seen, lying about
3 ft. below the level of the portico and the snrrounding colonnade. This
peculiarity was probably occasioned by the alterations made by Tiberius.
Between the Tempie of Castor and the Basilica Julia ran the
Vicus Tuscus, a busy Street leading to the Velabrum and the Forum
Boarium, or cattle-market on the river (p. 238).
The Basilica Julia was founded by Cassar with a view to enlarge
the Forum ; it was inaugurated in B.C. 46, after the battle of Thap-
sus, though stili unfinished. Augustus extended it, but did not
witness its completion, as it was destroyed by a flre. The building
was again twice injured by fire towards the end of the 3rd century.
It was restored several times, finally in A. D. 377. The building is
mentioned in history for the last time in the 7th cent., and it was
probably destroyed in the 8th. After several partial excavations,
it was almost ali extricated in 1871 and entirely so in 1882-83.
The Ground Plan of the basilica is a rectangle, about 111 yds. long
and 53 yds. wide. A flight of six, and at places nine, steps ascended to
it from the Street. Along the four sides were doublé aisles which enclosed
a Central Space, about 90 yds. byl7yds., paved with variegated African
and Phrygian marble, the costly nature of which indicates that the space
was roofed over. The greater part of the pavement has been restored,
a few fragments of the originai only having been preserved. The sittings
of the tribunal of the Centumviri, in four different sections, took place
here. The Aisles were paved with white marble, on which are stili seen
a number of circles, and occasionally writing, scratched on the surface
by visitors. These were used in playing a game resembling draughts;
for the ancient Romans were as fond of pastimes as the modera. Of the
Columns nothing but the bases remain; the blocks of which they con-
sisted were used in building the Pai. Giraud in the Borgo (p. 267). The
brick pillars have been reconstructed, in a manner indicated by some
lingering remains and partly with the originai materials. On the W. side
the remains are somewhat more important, owing to the fact that a
mediaeval church was built in this part of the basilica. Here, on the side
next the Street, stili stand marble pillars adorned with Doric pilasters,
while at the back, facing the Consolazione, are lofty walls of tuffstone
and travertine. Steps ascended here to the upper story.
The main arm of the Cloaca Maxima p. 239), discovered in
1872, runs under the E. end of the Basilica Julia.
The Victts Jugarius (street of the yoke-makers) led between the
Tempie of Saturn and the Basilica to the Tiber. Between the Rostra
and the Basilica the Sacra Via was spanned by the Triumphal Arch
of Tiberius , erected in A.D. 16 to commemorate the defeat of the
Germanie tribes and the recovery of the Roman insignia lost at the
battle of the Teutoburgian Forest. Its foundations were scattered