216 HI. Southern Quarters. ROME. b. The Forum
principal champions of expiring paganism. In 1858 the ruin was
much modernised. The chambers in the colonnade on the side next
the Tempie of Vespasian are generally but erroneously called the
Schóla Xantha (a meeting-place of scribes and notaries).
To the right of the Colonnade of the Twelve Gods the Tabula-
rium is adjoined by the Ruin of the Three Columns, belonging to the
Tempie of Vespasian, erected under Domitian, and restored by
Septimius Severus. The inscription ran thus: 'Divo Vespasiano
Augusto Senatus populusque Romanus ; imperatores Caesares Severus
et Antoninus Pii Felices Augusti restituer(unt).' A part of the last
word only is preserved. The columns and entablature display ex¬
cellent workmanship (restored cast in the Tabularium, see p. 212).
In front the tempie had 6 columns, 49 ft. high, and 4!/2ft. thick at
the base. An egress from the Tabularium (p. 212) was evidently
built up by the back-wall of the cella.
Farther on, to the right, and with its back adjoining the Tabu¬
larium, is the Tempie of Concordia, founded in B.C. 366 by
M. Furius Camillus, and rebuilt on a larger scale by Tiberius, B.C.7
(p. 213). Its arrangement is remarkable. The Cella or inner space
of this tempie differs from the usuai type in having its longer axis
(130 ft.) at right angles to the longer axis of the tempie ; it is 82 ft.
wide. The N. part of the cella is concealed by the ascent to Aracoeli.
A broad flight of steps ascended to the Pronaos, which lay 20 ft.
above the level of the Street and was 88 ft. long and 46 ft. wide.
The interior of the tempie was frequently used in early times for
meetings of the Senate, and after the restoration of Tiberius it
seems to have served chiefly for the exhibition of works of art.
The Sacra Via, or 'Holy Way', forming the chief line of com-
munication between the Capitol and the Forum , passed in front of
the buildings just named. The ancient pavement is stili well pre¬
served for a considerable length near the Tempie of Saturn (see
p. 218) and at some other points.
In order to continue our examination of the Forum we now pro-
ceed to the entrance at S. Maria Liberatrice (p. 215), where a flight
of wooden steps descends to the Tempie of Castor. The view from
this point, reinforced by a reference to the Pian, will help the visitor
to understand the arrangement of the Forum.
The *Temple of Castor and Pollux, generally called the Tempie
of Castor (JEdes Castoris or Castorum), was dedicated to the twin
gods out of gratitude for the aid which enabled the Romans to defeat
the Latins at the battle of Lake Regillus in B.C. 496, and in-
auguTated in 484. It was afterwards rebuilt by Tiberius and re-
consecrated in A.D. 6. This was one of the most famous temples of
the Republic, and was often used for meetings of the senate. The
remains consist of the basement and a piece of the stylobate on the
E. side , with three splendid columns of Parian marble.