must be carefully packed and fastened and may not contain anything in
the shape of a letter; and a custom-house declaration must be filled up
for each. Articles such as flowers, etc., not liable to duty are best sent
as samples of no value (campione senza valore) in Italy 2 e. per 50 gr.,
abroad 10 e.
Telegrams. For telegrams to foreign countries the following rate per
word is charged in addition to an initial payment of 1 fr. : Great Britain
26 e, France 14, Germany 14, Switzerland 6-14, Austria 6-14, Belgium 19,
Holland 23, Denmark 23, Russia 42, Norway 34, Sweden 26 e. — To America
from S'/t fr. per word upwards, according to the distance. — In Italy,
15 words 1 fr., each additional word 5 e. Telegrams with special hast
(telegrammi urgenti), which take precedence of ali others, may be sent in
Italy at thrice the above rates.
XII. Climate. Health.
The climate of Rome is determined by its situation in the Cam¬
pagna, almost equidistant from the Apennines and the sea (14 M.),
and about 100 ft. above the level of the latter. During winter the
prevalent wind is the Tramontana, a term applied not only to the
N. wind but also to the N.N.E. wind (Greco); it blows more and
more frequently from October to December, then hecomes gradually
rarer, and by Aprii or May ceases altogether. This dry and cool
(sometimes even cold) wind is generally accompanied by a clear
sky, and except when unusually violent (in which case it irritates
the mucous membrane) is not found trying even by invalids. The
Scirocco, a general name for the S.E., S., and S.W. winds, is
especially prevalent in October and Aprii. It has an alleviating
effect upon colds and coughs , but is apt to take away the appetite
and impair the nervous energy.
The most favourable month for a visit to Rome is October, dur¬
ing which the average temperature is about 63° Fahr. The rain that
then falls is drunk in greedily by the parched earth, and ali nature
seems to awaken to a second spring. November, with a mean tem¬
perature of 54° and an average of 1272 days of rain, is also often a
pleasant month. In December the N. and S. winds contend for
mastery, and wet weather alternates with cold, the mean tempera¬
ture being 47° and the average number of rainy days eleven. Jan-
uary (mean temp. 4572°) wet days 11V3), ar>d February (mean temp.
4672°, wet days 10), during which the N. wind prevails, are the two
coldest months. Travellers arriving at this season from the Riviera,
where the mean temperature in these months is from 48° to 54°,
should be careful to guard against the sudden change by warmer
clothing. March (mean temp. 5072°, rainy days 10), though often
cold, and as usuai in the S. the windiest month of the year, seldom
passes without some charming spring days. After October Aprii and
the first half of May form the pleasantest time for visiting Rome.
The heat then rapidly increases, and from the end of May till Octo¬
ber it is almost insufferable (June 72°, July 76°, Augustlb°, Sept-
ember 6972° F.).
Health. Malaria or Roman fever is, of course, most prevalent